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London County Council 1946

[Report of the Medical Officer of Health for London County Council]


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96 tables in this report

  • Page 3
    lhe total births allocated to London for 1946 were:—
  • Page 4
    There were 5,283 illegitimate births (8-0 per cent, of the total live births). Percentages in recent years are:—
    LondonEngland and Wales
  • Page 5
    Stillbirths in Scotland
    YearStillbirth rateCauses of stillbirth (rates per 1,000 live births)
    Disease of motherAnomalies of foetus, placenta or cordDeath of foetus by injury or other causeIll-defined
  • Page 6
    CauseApproximate change as a percentage of those formerly assigned to this cause*
  • Page 9
    Comparative rates lor London and England and Wales in recent years are:—
    LondonEngland and Walts
  • Page 9
    Detailed figures for the metropolitan boroughs are shown in tables 3 and 11 and comparative figures for England and Wales in recent years are shown in table 10, page 24.
    YearLive birthsDeathsNotifications
    Puerperal sepsisOther childbirthPuerperal feverPuerperal pyrexia
    No. 1RateNo.RateNo.RateNo.Rate
  • Page 13
    As a corollary of (i) the proportion of adults in the total cases of diphtheria notified in anv period is now increasing as is evident from the following figures
    YearsAverage percentage of diphtheria cases over 15 years to the total number of cases at all ages
  • Page 14
    The figures are as follows
    YearsEstimated cases*DeathsCrude case-mortality per cent.
  • Page 15
    Civilian death-rates per 1,000 living in 1946 in London and for the whole country were:—
  • Page 16
    Table 1—Population of the administrative County of London, 1921-1946
    YearMid-year estimate of populationAverage age
    Total0-45-14 15-2425-4446-6465+
  • Page 17
    Table 2—Migration from the County
    YearEstimated net loss to county by migrationEstimated net gain to outer ringRatio of outer ring to county mortality (all ages, all causes)Triennial mean ratios
  • Page 18
    Table 3—Vital statistics for the metropolitan boroughs and the County of London in the year 1946 (Rates per 1,000 of civil population)
  • Page 19
    Table 4—County of London—Principal vital statistics, 1891.1946
    PeriodAnnual rate per 1,000 livingAnnual mortality per 1,000 livingAnnual mortality per 1,000 live births
    Live birthsMarriagesDeaths (all causes)Cerebrospinal feverDiphtheriaEnteric feverTuberculosisDiarrhoea and enteritis 0—2Puerperal feverOther acc. of ch. birth
    Scarlet feverSmallpoxWhooping. coughMeaslesInfluenzaPulmonaryNon.pulmonaryPneumonia (all forms)BronchitisOther resp. diseasesHeart diseaseCancerDiabetesInfants 0—1
  • Page 20
    Table 5—Administrative County of London—Civilian deaths in 1946 by cause
    CauseSex0—1—5—15—45—65 +Total
  • Page 21
    1 able 5 Administrative County of London—Civilian deaths in 1946 by cause—continuec
    CauseSex0—1—5—16 —45—65 +Total
  • Page 21
    Table 6—Road deaths by age 1940-46
    Year0—45—1415—4445—6465All ages
  • Page 22
    Table 7—Stillbirths—Administrative County of London
    YearStillbirthsRate per 1,000 live and stillbirths
  • Page 23
    Table 8. Country of London-Infant Mortality, 1946
    Cause of DeathAge at DeathTotalRates per 1,000 live births
    Under 1 day1 to 7 days1 to 4 wks.4 wks. to 1 yearNo.MalesFemalesTotalMalesFemales
  • Page 23
    Table 9—Infant mortality in London by cause 1911—1946 (Rates per 1,000 live births)
    Cause of death1911 to 19141915 to 19181919 to 19221923 to 19261927 to 19301931 to 19341935 to 19381939 to 194219421943194419451946
  • Page 24
    Table 10—Maternal mortality—London and England and Wales 1937-46 (Rates per 1,000 live births)
  • Page 24
    Table 11—Maternal mortality in London 1931-46
    Metropolitan boroughs arranged in topographical orderChildbirth deaths (a) per 1,000 live-birthsNumber of deaths (b) in childbirth 1946
    Puerperal feverOther causesTotalPuerperal feverOther causesTotalPuer-peral feverOther causesTotal
  • Page -
    Table 13—County of London—Notifiable infectious diseases—Annual number of notifications and numbers per 1,000 of population—1931.1946
    YearAnthraxCerebrospinal feverContinued feverDiphtheriaDysenteryEncephalitis lethargicaEnteric feverErysipelasMalariaMeaslesOphthalmia neonatorumPneumoniaPolioencephalitisPoliomyelitisPuerperal feverPuerperal pyrexiaScabiesScarlet feverSmallpoxTyphusWhooping-cough
    CasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRateCasesRat eCasesRate
  • Page 25
    Table 12—Death rates from certain infectious diseases—London and England and Wales—1931-46 Rates are per 1,000 living except for diarrhoea and enteritis where it is expressed per 1,000 live births
    YearMeaslesWhooping-coughScarlet feverDiphtheriaDiarrhoea & enteritis under 2
    LondonE. & W.LondonE. & W.LondonE. & W.LondonE. & W.LondonE. & W.
  • Page 26
    Table 14—Primary notifications (a) of and deaths from tuberculosis in the Administrative County of London
    YearPulmonary tuberculosisNon-pulmonary tuberculosis
    Formal primary notificationsDeathsFormal p notificarimary tionsDeaths
    No.Annual rate per 1,000 livingNo.Annual rate per 1,000 livingNo.Annual rate per 1,000 livingNo.Annual rate per 1.000 living
  • Page 26
    Table 15—Tuberculosis—-Primary notifications in London during the year 1946
    Form of tuberculosis notifiedSexNumber of formal primary notifications of new cases of tuberculosisTotal all agesTotal notifications
  • Page 27
    Table 16—New cases of tuberculosis in London found by other means than notification
    Form of tuberculosisSexNew cases of tuberculosis coming to knowledge otherwise than by formal notification
    0-1-5-10-15-20-25-35-45-55-65 +Total
  • Page 27
    The sources of information as to the unnotified cases shown above were as follows:—
    Source of informationNumber of cases
  • Page 27
    Table 17—Numbers on the tuberculosis registers, for the whole county, 1941-1946
  • Page 28
    Details of the milk samples and results of examination follow:—
    Source of sampleDesignationSamplesPercentage positive of completed samples
  • Page 29
    Continued from previous page...
    YearNew casesTotal venereal casesTotal non-venereal cases
    SyphilisS. ChancreGonorrhœa
  • Page 30
    The following statement summarises the work of the past four years :—
  • Page 31
    A summary of the results of the 37 prosecutions in 1946 is given below.
  • Page 32
    Blind persons Particulars of examinations under the provisions of the Blind Persons Acts 1920 and 1938, during the year are set out below:— Examinations by the Council's ophthalmologists—
    ClassificationCertified blindNot blindGrand total
  • Page 33
    The number of recommendations for residential treatment with the corresponding figures for the war years and 1938 were:—
    YearFor the first period of treatmentFor further treatmentTotal
    Ex-ServiceService sick†Civilian adultsChildrenEx-ServiceService sick†Civilian adultsChildren
  • Page 33
    Patients recommended for treatment during the year were dealt with as follows (the corresponding figures for 1945 to 1943 and 1938 are also shown, but those for the years 1942 to 1939, inclusive, are not available):—
  • Page 34
    The number of beds occupied by patients under the tuberculosis scheme on 31st December, 1946 (with corresponding figures for the years 1938 to 1945, inclusive) were as follows ; the figures in brackets represent the number of ex-Service men and women (included in the figures) whose tuberculous condition has been accepted by the Ministry of Pensions as connected with war service:—
    YearCouncil's special hospitals and sanatoriaCouncil's general hospitalsVoluntary institutionsTotal
  • Page 36
    The following is a summary of the work done during the year, with corresponding figures for 1945 shown in brackets:—
    NumberPer cent. of miniatures
  • Page 37
    (5) Numbers, in age groups, of significant lesions probably tuberculous (306) and persons advised sanatorium treatment (90).
    Age groupsMiniature films takenSignificant lesions probably tuberculousAdvised sanatorium treatment
    NumberPercentage of miniaturesNumberPercentage of miniatures
  • Page 37
    (6) Statistics of children or students attending secondary schools and technical colleges (15 years of age or over) included in foregoing tables
    dumberPer cent. of miniature
  • Page 38
    In 1946, 865 midwives notified their intention to practise, compared with 683 in 1945, and the distribution of those midwives at 31st December among the main branches of midwifery was as follows:—
  • Page 39
  • Page 39
    The following are the figures for 1938, which was the first year of the Council's domiciliary midwifery service, and for the years 1945 and 1946:—
    Maternity nursing casesMidwifery casesTotal
  • Page 40
    The number of stillbirths was 155, including 44 premature infants. These figures do not include women transferred to hospital who were subsequently delivered of stillbirths. The following is an analysis of stillbirths:—
    No.SexFull timePrem.Maternal toxaemiaCondition of infantMethod of deliveryPresentation
    MaceratedNot maceratedNormalForcepsBreechOthersVertexBreechOthers
  • Page 41
    There were 402 premature infants not admitted to hospitals, of whom 25 died. The following is an analysis of these premature infants:—
    ParityTotalWeight 3 lbs. and underWeight over 3 lbs.
  • Page 41
    The number of district confinements undertaken by the voluntary organisations included in the Council's domiciliary midwifery scheme showed a correspondingly substantial increase compared with confinements for 1945. These numbers, together with those for 1938, were as follows:—
    Maternity nursing casesMidwifery casesTotalGrand total
  • Page 43
    The number of samples examined in 1946 was 18,938, their classification being:—
  • Page 46
    Interesting and important experiments are being made in the use of trilene for maternal analgesia in normal labour.
  • Page 47
    Maternal deaths—
  • Page 49
    The numbers of patients admitted during 1946, compared with 1938 and 1945, are shown below:—
  • Page 49
    The following statement shows the position as regards nursery accommodation on 31st December, 1946:—
    Total accommodationNumber of children in residence
  • Page 50
    The following associations between the Council's and voluntary hospitals were established during the year:—
    Council's hospitalVoluntary hospitalParticulars of association
  • Page 51
    Continued from previous page...
    Council's hospitalVoluntary hospitalParticulars of association
  • Page 53
    Statistical information about the service in 1946 can be summarised conveniently as follows, figures in brackets referring to the work done in 1945:—
    Medical relief districts servedDoctorsAttendances at relief stations or surgeriesDomiciliary visitsPersons seenPersons admitted to hospital
    Attending at relief stationsAttending at surgeries
  • Page 60
    Pathological laboratory service The number of examinations (including post-mortem examinations) completed in the group laboratories during the year ended 31st December, 1946, compared with the year 1945, is given below:—
    Oroup laboratory19461945
  • Page 63
    By comparison the figures for Coronation Day, V.E. Days and V.J. Days were:—
  • Page 63
    Comparative statistics for the years 1938 to 1946 are as follows:— Accident Section
    No. of callsNo. of casesMileage
  • Page 64
    Street accident cases by ages were:—
    Age (in years)Number of casesPercentage
  • Page 64
    YearMiles runPersons conveyed
    PatientsRelatives and friends of patients, staff, etc.Total
  • Page 65
    Particulars of work for the years 1938, 1939, 1945, and 1946
  • Page 65
    LONDON AUXILIARY AMBULANCE SERVICE Air-raid casualties conveyed
    YearLondon regional groupsDisposal of casesMenWomenChildrenTotal
  • Page 66
    Summary of School Medical Inspections—1946
    (a) Routine Inspections
    Age groupBoysGirlsTotal
  • Page 67
    Continued from previous page...
  • Page 67
    (c) Higher education institutions
  • Page 67
    The numbers and percentages of children seen at routine medical inspections who were referred for, or were under treatment for, defects other than cleanliness, teeth or nutrition are shown in the following table:—
    Age groupNumber examinedNumber of children referred for or under treatment for any defect*
  • Page 68
    It will be seen that the nursery children compare favourably with the entrants. The following table gives an analysis of the defects found in the examination of 73,632 boys and 70,868 girls of all ages in 1946:—
  • Page 69
    The following table shows the percentage of children with normal eyesight in Vision 1946, compared with 1938:—
    Age group19381946
  • Page 69
    The subjoined table shows the doctors' assessment of nutrition in percentages as found in the normal four age groups in 1946, with 1938 for comparison. The classification is as follows: (1) Excellent, (2) normal, (3) subnormal. (4) bad.
    Age groups10381946
    No. examined1234No. examined1234
  • Page 69
    The following table shows the doctors' findings in 1946, at medical inspections of children in the four age groups—grouped into (a) sound and (b) caries, and for comparison the 1938 percentage figures are also shown:—
    Age groups19381946
  • Page 70
    In the four age groups, the percentages of children inspected during 1946 found to have defects, were as follows, those for the years 1938, 1944 and 1945 being included for comparison:—
    Nature of defect1946194519441938
  • Page 71
    1946, with corresponding figures for the years 1938, 1944 and 1945 included for comparison:—
    Age group1946194519441938
  • Page 71
    The subdivision between boys, girls and infants is as follows:—
    Total no. examinedNo. found verminousPercentage
  • Page 71
    The following table summarises the contra-indications (excluding special schools):—
    Contra-indication for jobs involving or needingBoysGirls
    NumberPercentage of inspected childrenNumberPercentage of inspected children
  • Page 72
    The following table shows the percentages of both sexes with defects limiting their choice of employment in 1946, the corresponding figures for 1943, 1944 and 1945 being given for comparison :—
  • Page 72
    The following table shows the number of new cases treated at the school treatment centres and at the co-operating voluntary hospitals in 1946 and in 1938
  • Page 73
    The following summarises the school pupils treated as in-patients in the Council's and E.M.S. hospitals in the year 1945-46 :—
    HospitalsNo. of children treatedTotal daysAverage no. under treatmentAverage stay (days)Long stay (over 8 weeks)
  • Page 73
    The division between the various categories of handicapped children was:—
  • Page 73
    In addition to 58 day special schools in London the Council has the following residential special school accommodation (the blind and deaf residential schools have also accommodation for day pupils):—
    DefectNo. of schoolsAccommodation ResidentialDayBoysGirls
  • Page 74
    Provision of meals The following table, supplied by the Education Officer, shows the result of a census of the total numbers of school pupils provided with school meals and/or milk on a typical day in the month of October, 1946:—
    Number in attendance on selected dayNumber who had dinnerNumber who had milk— one-third pint free
  • Page 75
    Infectious diseases in schools The numbers of infectious cases reported from the day schools during the year are shown in the following table, the figures for the preceding eight years being given for comparison:—
    YearDiphtheriaScarlet feverMeasles and German measlesWhooping-coughChicken-poxMumpsConjunctivitis
  • Page 75
    The numbers of schools kept under observation during 1946 by school nursing sisters on account of the principal infectious diseases are shown in the following table:—
    DivisionDiphtheriaScarlet feverMeasles and German measlesWhoopingcoughChickenpoxMumpsTotal
  • Page 75
    During the year there has again been an increase in the number of cases of scalp ringworm as indicated in the following table, which gives details of cases reported in 1938, 1945 and 1946
    YearNew casesCured casesCases outstanding at end of yearPercentage of cures effected by X-ray treatment
  • Page 76
    The mass movements of children out of and into London during the war may well have led to failure in early recognition of subacute rheumatism and/or of early cardiac involvement, so that caution should be observed in comparing 1946 data with those of pre-war years.
    YearNumber of children cm school rollsNumber of children accepted for treatment in rheumatic unitsPercentage of school population
  • Page 77
    The following table gives a statistical summary of the work of the Council's juvenile rheumatic scheme from 1938 to 1946:—
  • Page 77
    The numbers and results of the examinations of school children were as follows:—
    NumberPercentage of miniatures
  • Page 81
    Table 1
    Year 1st Jan.Mentally disordered patients under reception ordersVoluntary and temporary patientsChronic harmless patients in ex-M.A.b. institutions under sec. 24or 25 of Lunacy Act, 1890Uncertified patientsMentally defective patients dealt with under the Mental Deficiency ActsTotalIncreaseDecrease
    Cases of senile dementia over 70 years of ageFeebleminded persons
  • Page 82
    The following table shows the number of mental patients of all classes undergoing treatment in London County mental hospitals and ex-M.A.B. institutions during 1946:— Table 2
    Lunacy and Mental Treatment ActsUncertified senile patientsTotal of all classes
    CertifiedVoluntaryTemporaryLunacy Act Sections 24 & 25
  • Page 83
    The following table shows the admissions at each of the London County mental hospitals during 1946, including voluntary and temporary patients received under the provisions of the Mental Treatment Act, 1930:— Table 3
    HospitalTotal number on register, 1st January, 1946Admissions, 1946Total number under treatment, 1946
    DirectIndirect, t.e.f by transfer from other mental hospitalsTotal
    London CountyOther County
  • Page 84
    The numbers of patients on the registers at the London County mental hospitals on 1st January, 1947, were:— Table 4
    HospitalUnder reception ordersVoluntary patientsTemporary patientsTotal
  • Page 84
    The following table gives a summary of action taken under the Mental Deficiency Acts:— Table 5
    Source of informationFrom 1st April, 1914, to 31st December, 19461946 only
  • Page 84
    Position as at 31st December, 1946, with regard to the 26,554 cases referred to in the first column of the preceding table:— Detained:— In institutions provided by the Council—
  • Page 85
    Removed from active list:—
  • Page 85
    Summary of movements during 1946 Placed in institutions provided by the Council—
  • Page 85
    Farming operations During the year 1946, the area of land farmed by the Mental Health Services decreased by 205 acres, some of this having been surrendered for housing purposes. The following table shows the total areas of land under cultivation since the outbreak of war:—
    Acreage at outbreak of warArableGrassTotal
  • Page 85
    Particulars of the main items of produce derived from these farms during the year ended 31st March, 1946, are given below with comparative figures for preceding years:—
  • Page 86
    The approximate numbers of pigs and poultry on the farms in the Mental Health Services at 31st March, 1946, and at the same date in each of the preceding three years (figures as at 31st March in earlier years not being available) were:—
  • Page 86
    The numbers of cattle at 31st March in each of the years 1939-46, inclusive, were:—
    Cows (i.e., cattle other than bulls, heifers and calves, and including dry cows as well as those in milk)Other cattle (i.e., bulls, heifers and calves)Total