London's Pulse: Medical Officer of Health reports 1848-1972

View report tables

London County Council 1931

[Report of the Medical Officer of Health for London County Council]


This page requires JavaScript

162 tables in this report

  • Page -
    The distribution of deaths by ages in 1931 and recent preceding periods is shown in the following table:—
    Period.0-1 -2-5-10-15-20-25-35-45-55-65+All ages.
  • Page 3
    Three deaths occurred amongst smallpox patients, particulars of which are as follows:—
    Borough.Age.Sex.Vaccinal condition.Date of death.Certified cause of death.
  • Page 4
    Notifications, as shown below, were received in each registration year since 1921, excluding duplicate notifications and military cases:—
  • Page 4
    The disease became epidemic towards the end of the year. The deaths in successive four-weekly periods in this epidemic compare with the figures for the three preceding epidemics as follows:—
    Years.October—December.January—June.Total. (36 weeks).
  • Page 5
    periods 1920-1927, and 1928-1931, together with the deaths in childbirth in 1931 are shown in the following table:—
    Metropolitan Boroughs.Childbirth deaths per 1,000 births.Number of deaths in Childbirth.
    Puerperal fever.Other causes.Total.Puerperal fever.Other causes.Total.Puerperal fever.Other causes.Total.
  • Page 6
    Vital statistics for the several metropolitan boroughs and the County of London in the year 1931. (Rates per 1,000 of civil population.)
    Metropolitan boroughs. (Arranged in topographical order.)Estimated civil population 1931.Births. (a)Deaths.Infant mortality (per 1,000 births).MeaslesScarlet fever.Diphtheria.Whooping cough.Typhoid fever.Diarrhoea and Enteritis, age 0-2 (per l,000 births).Phthisis.Pneumonia.Bronchitis.Cancer.Maternal mortality (per 1,000 births).Notified cases of infectious disease.
    Scarlet fever.Diphtheria.Typhoid fever.Erysipelas.Cerebrospinal fever.Acute pneumonia
  • Page 7
    COUNTY OF LONDON.—Notifiable infectious diseases.—Notifications per 1,000 of population.
    PeriodAnthraxCerebro-spinal feverContinued feverDiphtheriaDysenteryEncephalitis lethargicaEnteric feverErysipelasMalariaOphthalmia neonatorum (per 1,000 births)Pneumonia 1PolioencephalitisPoliomyelitisPuerperal fever (per 1,000 births)Puerperal pyrexia (per 1,000 births)Scarlet feverSmallpoxTyphus
  • Page 8
    COUNTY OF LONDON.—Principal vital statistics, 1891-1931.
    PeriodBirthsMarriagesDeaths (all causes)Cerebro-spinal feverDiphtheriaEnteric feverScarlet feverSmallpoxWhooping coughMeaslesInfluenzaTuberculosisPneumonia (all forms)BronchitisOther resp. dis.Heart diseaseCancerDiabetesInfants 0—1Diarrhoea and Enteritis 0—2Puerperal feverOther acc. of ch. birth.
  • Page 9
    Infectious Diseases.—Notifications in the County of London during the 52 weeks ended 2nd January, 1932.
    Metropolitan borough.Anthrax.Cerebrospinal fever.Continued fever.Diphtheria (including membranous croup).Dysentery.Encephalitis lethargica.Enteric fever.Erysipelas.Malaria.Ophthalmia neonatorum.Pneumonia.Polioencephalitis.Poliomyelitis.Puerporal fever.Puerperal pyrexia.Scarlet fever.Small-pox.Typhus.
  • Page 10
    Ihe movement of the cancer mortality-rate in London at decennial intervals is shown in the following table. The approximate death-rates for the period 1929-1931 are based upon the census figures of 1931.
    Period.Age group.
  • Page 11
    The annual deaths and death-rates from pulmonary tuberculosis in recent years are shown in the subjoined table:—
    Period.Pulmonary Tuberculosis Death-rates.Non-pulmonary Tuberculosis Death-rates.
  • Page 11
    The following is an analysis of the notifications in London during 1931 (53 weeks ended 2nd January, 1932):—
    Form of tuberculosis notified.Sex.Number of Formal Primary Notifications of new cases of tuberculosis.Total Notifications.
    0-1-5-10-15-20-25-35-45-55-65 +Total all ages
  • Page 11
    In addition to the primary cases shown in the above table, a number of cases came to the knowledge of medical officers of health, otherwise than by notification. These figures include cases not notified before death:—
    Form of tuberculosis notified.Sex.New cases of tuberculosis coming to knowledge otherwise than by formal notification.
    0-1-5-10-15-20-25-35-45-55-65 +Total.
  • Page 11
    The sources of information as to the unnotified cases shown in the above table were as follows:—
    Source of information.Number of cases.
  • Page 12
    The movement in the mortality during the past thirty years for both males and females is shown in the following table, which shows the deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis in London per 100,000 living:—
  • Page 12
    In the following table the deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis at ages 15 to 25 are stated as a percentage of the deaths at the same ages from all causes, in areas of differing degrees of urbanization:—
    Areas of England and WalesMalesFemales
    1911-13 Per cent.1920-22 Per cent.1928-30 Per cent.1911-13 Per cent.1920-22 Per cent.1928-30 Per cent.
  • Page 13
    The figures are as follows:—
    Group of boroughs1901-101926-30Increase ( +) or Decrease (—)
  • Page 13
    This will be seen from the following table:—
    Age periodDeaths in 1911Deaths in 1921 (on 1911 population)Increase ( +) or Decrease (—)
    Pulmonary tuberculosisAll other causesPulmonary tuberculosisAll other causesPulmonary tuberculosisAll other causes
    No.Per cent.No.Per cent.
  • Page 14
    The figures of mortality from all causes among unmarried and married women are as follows:—
    AgeDeaths in 1911Deaths in 1921 (on 1911 population)Increase (+ ) or Decrease (—)
    No.Per cent.
  • Page 14
    The mortality-rates of single women have been calculated for each year of life for ages 10 to 25 in the period of 1911 to 1913 and 1921 to 1923 in England and Wales, the result being as follows:—
    Age last birthdayAnnual average death rate per 1,000 living at each age(England and Wales)Increase(+) or decrease(-) in rateIncrease(+) or decerase(-) in per rate
  • Page 15
    The following table shows briefly the results obtained in the several years during which the enumeration has been undertaken by the Council:—
    Year.Common Lodging houses (Inmates)Casual wards (Inmates)Homeless.Total.Year.Common Lodging houses (Inmates)Casual wards (Inmates)Homeless.Total.
  • Page 17
    COUNTY OF LONDON.—Statistics of the administrative work carried out during the year 1931.
    Sanitary Authority.Cowsheds.Slaughterhouses.Offensive trades.Smoke nuisances.Common lodging houses.Cleansing of persons and rooms.Water supply.Milk-shops.Ice cream premises.Restaurants and eating houses.
    No. licensed.No. of inspections.No. licensed.No. of Inspections.No. authorised.No. of inspections.Observations.Intimations.Complaints.Notices.Houses licensed.Authorised lodgers.Persons.Rooms or premises.Tenement houses extra supply.No. on register.No. of inspections.No. on register.No. of inspections.No. of places.No. of Inspections.
    Adults.Children.After Infectious diseases.For vermin.
  • Page 18
    Continued from previous page...
    Borough.No. of houses.No. of houses Inspected.No. of notices served.No. of houses repaired or nuisances remedied under P.H. Act.No. of houses repaired under Housing Act 1925/30.Underground rooms.Overcrowding.Houses let in lodgings.No. of houses closed by owner.No. of houses for the working classes.Houses unfit for habitation.
    Representations.Closing orders.Demolition orders.
    In borough.Occupied by the working classes.Complaints or illness.House to house.Under P.H. Act.Under Housing Act.
    No. illegally occupied.No. closed or otherwise remediedInstances found.No. remedied.No. on register.No. of inspections.Erected during year.In course of erection.No. made.No. of houses.No. made.No. determined.No. made.No. of houses demolished.
    By owners.By L.A.In pursuance of orders.Voluntarily.
  • Page 19
    Sanitary Inspectors, 1931.
    District.Population (Census) 1931Male.Female.Health Visitors.
    Whole time.Part time.Whole time.Part time.Whole time.Part time.
  • Page 20
    Results of Milk Sampling.
    DepartmentNumber of samples takenNumber of completed examinationsNumber found to be tubercle infectedNumber found to be negativeNumber of cases of acute intercurrent infection
  • Page 21
    Results of Veterinary Inspection.
    DepartmentNumber of visitsNumber of examinations madeNumber of cows with tuberculosisNumber of cows with other unhealthy conditions (apart from T.B.)
    CowsBullsYoung stock
  • Page 22
    The distribution of new cases of venereal disease between the sexes is shown in the following table, the figures for the preceding years being given for comparison:—
    Year.New cases.Total Venereal cases.
    Syphilis.Soft chancre.Gonorrhoea.
  • Page 22
    Congenital Syphilis—New Patients.
    Under 1 year.1 and under 5 years.5 and under 15 years.15 years and over.Totals
  • Page 23
    Comparative figures for the fifteen years during which the scheme has been in force are shown in the following table:—
    Year.New cases.Total.Total attendances (venereal and non-venereal)In-patients days.
  • Page 26
    The following table indicates the number of applications from adults for residential treatment during each of the last five years:—
    YearApplication for first period of treatmentApplication for further treatmentTotal applications
    Ex-serviceCivilian maleFemaleEx-serviceCivilian maleFemale
  • Page 26
    During the year, 1,539 patients were discharged from "observation beds" and their classification was as follows (the corresponding figures for 1930 also being given):—
  • Page 28
    The condition of the children under 15 years of age (on admission) who were discharged from residential institutions in 1931 is indicated in the following table, the figures in brackets being those for 1930:—
    Immediate results of treatment.Classification.Surgical.Totals.
  • Page 30 31
    Tuberculosis Dispensaries.—Analysis of Returns, January-December, 1931.
    Metropolitan Borough.on Dispensary Register, 1-1-31Transferred during 1931 from other areas and cases returnee after dischargeExamined for first time during 1931. (a) New cases excluding contacts. (b) Contacts (printed in italics).Total number (including contacts) under dispensary supervision during 1931.Removed from Dispensary Register during 1931.On Dispensary Register 31-12-30.Total attendances.Visits to home for dispensary purposes byNo. of specimens of sputum examined.No. of X-Ray examinations.
    Definitely T.B.Diagnosis not completed.Pulmonary.Non-Pulmonary.Diagnosis not completed.Non-Tuberculous.Total.(a) Re-covered. (b) Non T.B. (printed in italics.)(a) Transferred to other areas or lost sight of (b) Died (printed in italics)Definitely T.b.Diagnosis not completed.
    Adults.Children.Adults.Child ren.Adults.Children.Adults.Child- ren.Adults.Children.T.B. Officers.Nurses or Health Visitors.
  • Page 32
    The following table shows the result of the enquiry and also (in brackets) the corresponding figures ascertained from last year's enquiry into the 1924 cases:—
    Classification.Total.Percentage alive five years after discharge.Percentage dead.
  • Page 32
    I he mortality records are as follows, the figures in brackets referring to last year's enquiry into the 1924 cases:—
    Classification.Total.Percentage alive five years after discharge.Percentage dead.
  • Page 32
    The mortality rates of the non-pulmonary cases classified according to the location of the disease are as follows:—
    Location of Disease.Total.Percentage alive five years after discharge.Percentage dead.
  • Page 35
    The cases were classified as follows under the heading of:—
  • Page 36
    The results of the examinations of the 3,282 cases were as under:—
    Sex.Case classification.Idiot.Imbecile.Feebleminded.Moral defective.Not defective.Enquiries.Total.
  • Page 36
    In the sub-joined table Dr. Shrubsall has set out his findings in an analysis of a random sample of 10,000 cases that have been examined under the Mental Deficiency Acts, with a view to comparing clinical type with grade of defect.
  • Page 38
    The response to problems of a non-verbal type in 50 cases whose mental age was 9 or over was as follows:—
  • Page 38
    The relation between the mental age as shown by tests of the Binet pattern and the age of onset of the epilepsy is indicated in the following table:—
    Age of onset of epilepsy.Mental age at time of examination.
  • Page 38
    The relation between the mental age on tests and educational attainments as indicated by reading ability was as follows :—
    Reading age (Burt).Mental age at time of examination.
  • Page 39
    The following table shows the kind of work on which the patients were engaged at the time of examination:—
    Not Amentia.Menially Defective.Total.
  • Page 39
    Enquiry was made as to the age of onset of fits in all cases and this was found to vary considerably, as shown by the following table:—
    Age at onset of fits.Not amentia.Mentally defective.Total.
  • Page 39
    The following were the types of cases found:—
  • Page 40
    Mental age as compared with chronological age.
    Chronological age.Mental age.
  • Page 40
    School reports were obtained whenever possible, and the following were the results in the 17 London cases:—
  • Page 40
    In the case of the country women (12) the schools were communicated with by letter and the following reports obtained:—
  • Page 40
    None of these country cases had attended schools for the mentally defective. The reading ages of the 29 cases are set out in the following table:—
  • Page 41
    The following were the offences with which they were charged:—
  • Page 41
    The disposal of the 29 cases was as follows:—
  • Page 41
    The following table gives their mental ages and their reading attainments:—
    Mental age.Number.Reading age.Number.
  • Page 42
    (a) Of the 28 who had attended special (M.D.) schools, the early history was:—
  • Page 44
    These 200 cases were separated into the following groups according to their education before coming to Darenth, and their average mental and reading ages were as given below:—
    Imbeciles51Mental age.Reading age.
    Barely 5Under 4
  • Page 45
    The applicants who satisfied the conditions as to blindness were divided into the following categories (the figures for 1930 being given in brackets):—
  • Page 51
    As a result of the examinations, 348 officers were deemed to be permanently unfit to carry out their ordinary duties in the service of the Council on the following grounds:—
  • Page 52
    The total number of samples examined in 1931 amounted to 10,497, compared with 8,024 during 1930, and the following table shows their classification :—
  • Page 53
    School Supplies.
  • Page 53
    Hospital Supplies.
  • Page 53
    Certified and Orade A Pasteurised Milk—
  • Page 54
    Pasteurised Milk—
  • Page 54
    Of the 880 samples of drugs and medical stores examined during the year 82 (or 9-3 per cent.) were found to be definitely unsatisfactory for use and a further 67 (or 7-6 per cent.) somewhat below standard strength or quality.
  • Page 55
    Samples of feeding stuffs.
  • Page 55
    Samples of fertilisers.
  • Page -
    An indication of the development of the service is given by the following figures which compare 1931 with 1911 and 1921:—
  • Page -
    lowest ever recorded in London. The following table shows the percentage of children found ill-nourished in the age groups :—
    Age Group.1920.1925.1930.1931.
  • Page -
    percentage improvement in the 8-year and 12-year groups is most marked. Details are set out below :—
    Age Group.1924.1927.1930.1931.
    Sound.Serious decay. *Sound.Serious decay.*Sound.Serious decay.*Sound.Serious decay.
  • Page -
    The present position is shown in the following table :— Analysis of Medical Inspection at Trainino Colleges, Technical Institutes and Secondary Schools.
    Schools, etc.Type.*Pupils examined byTotal.
    Council doctor.Governor's doctor.
  • Page -
    The following table shows the number of pupils examined by the Council's school medical staff :— Number of Pupils.
    Schools, etc.Secondary schools.Technical schools.Scholarship holders at schools not examined.Training colleges.Total.
  • Page -
    First Re-inspections, 1931. (Percentages are given in italic type.)
    Defect treated.Treated.Untreated.
    By private doctor.Under Council's scheme.At other hospitals.Cured naturally.Improved. For observation only.Still needing treatment.
    Cured.Not cured.Cured.Not cured.Cured.Not. cured.
  • Page -
    Provisional Dietary Scale for Residential Homes and Schools.
    Breakfast.Amount.11 a.m.Dinner.Amount.Tea.Amount.Supper.
    Age3-9 yrs.10-15yrs.3—9 yrs.Age3-9 yrs.10-15 yrs.Age3-9 yrs.10-15yrs.Over 9 yrs.
  • Page -
    Cases out of School for three months, November, 1931, and the three preceding years.
    Cases.Percentage of total.
  • Page -
    The following table shows the provision made in 1931, and the number of children actually treated during the years, 1920, 1930 and 1931 :—
    Ailment.Provision made in 1931.Number treated 1920.Number treated 1930.Number treated 1931.
  • Page -
    The numbers of cases of operations for the removal of tonsils or adenoid growths among school children, and the rate per 1,000 children on the school roll for the years 1923-31 are as follows :—
    Year.Number.Rate per 1,000.Year.Number.Rate per 1,000.
  • Page -
    Otorrhcea Cases.
    Division.Total No. of examinations made.No. of ears examined and treated.No. of ears cured.No. of ears discharged not needing treatment.No. of ears in children lost sight of.No. of ears relapsed.No. of ears still under treatment.
  • Page -
    Deai- Cases.
    Division.Total No. of examinations made.No. of ears examined and treated.No. of ears cured.No. of earsNo. of ears in children lost sight of.No. of ears relapsed.No. of ears still under treatment.
  • Page -
    Classification of Otorrhcea Cases.
    Cause of suppuration.Total ears.Cured.Referred for mastoid operation.Children lost sight of.Still under treatment.
  • Page -
    At the first test the following result was obtained :—
    Class of Child.Passed.Failed.
  • Page -
    Later the 135 who failed in the first test were given a second test with the following result:—
    Class of Child.Passed.Failed.Absent.
  • Page -
    Among the defects noted were :—
  • Page -
  • Page -
    The following are the particulars of the cases referred from Downs hospital in 1931 :—
  • Page -
    The following are the particulars of the cases referred from Downs hospital in 1930 and continuing treatment into 1931 :—
  • Page -
    The Year 1930.
    Type of operation done.Number of cases.Total length of period of healing.
  • Page -
    The Year 1931.
    Type of operation done.Number of cases.Total length o/f period of healing.
  • Page -
    The separate types of operation done, the number of cases of each, and the length of time 0 healing for both years combined are shown below:—
    Type of operation done.Number of cases.Number of weeks.Average Number of weeks per case.
  • Page -
    The following table shows the steady improvement in the general condition of the mouths of the children in the schools, and represents the result of the work undertaken at the treatment centres and of the endless propaganda in the schools, both with the children and the parents.
    Year.Percentage requiring treatment.Year.Percentage requiring treatment.
  • Page -
    Treated and sound.—Both dentitions.
  • Page -
    Treated and sound.—Permanent dentition only.
  • Page -
    Comparison of percentages by age groups.
    Age.Treated and Sound Both Dentitions.Treated and Sound Permanent Dentition Only.
    Wick centre.Controls.Wick centre.Controls.
    Number ex* amined.Number treated and sound.Percentage.Number examined.Number treated and sound.Percentage.Number treated and sound.Percentage.Number treated and sound.Percentage
  • Page -
    Condition of gums.
    Wick centre.Control.
  • Page -
    The following table gives the results :—
  • Page -
    Particulars of the examinations and the results of the cleansing schemes during the past six years are given below :—
    Year.Examinations at rota visits.Verminous conditions noted at rota visits.Percentage.Verminous children referred to centres.Subsequently cleansed by parents.Verminous children cleansed at centres.Scabies and impetigo cases bathed at centres.
  • Page -
    The following particulars for 1931 are in respect of the cleansing scheme operated from the Council's and Borough Councils' centres (as distinct from the "head" cleansing centres):—
  • Page -
    The number of certificates gained is as follows :—
    First class.Second class.Total.
  • Page -
    As a natural corollary to the ability to swim, great stress is laid on life-saving, and the results achieved, whilst not quite numerically so great as last year, are nevertheless highly commendable.
    Advanced certificate.Elementary certificate.Total.
  • Page -
    The followings statistics show the opreation of the rheumatism scheme during 1923; corresponding figures for the previous year are also shown:-
  • Page -
    During the year 943 children were nominated for residential treatment as shown below:—
    Nominated byBoys.Girls.Total.
  • Page -
    These nominations were distributed as follows throughout the year :—
  • Page -
    The sex distribution of the forms of rheumatism amongst these children were
  • Page -
    The ages of the children treated for the first time were :—
    Disease or conditionAge in year.
  • Page -
    The condition of the heart in these children was :—
    Disease or condition.Normal.Heart affected.Valvular disease of heart.
  • Page -
    residential treatment under the scheme were re-admitted to hospital. The condition of these children on re-admission was :—
    Disease or condition.Boys.Girls.
  • Page -
    The histories of 682 rheumatic children from the date of onset of rheumatism to the age of 14 years were reviewed and it appears from the figures obtained that the child who develops rheumatism before 9 years of age is much more likely to sustain a damaged heart than is one whose first rheumatic attack is delayed until after this age.
    ConditionAge of onset of rheumatism
  • Page -
    Table I.
    Downham.Elizabeth Bullock.Putney.
  • Page -
    Table II.
    Downham."Elizabeth Bullock."Putney.
  • Page -
    Table III.
    Downham," Elizabeth Bullock 'Putney
    Rheumatism.Doubtful Rheumatism.Non-Rheumatism.Total.Rheumatism with Carditis.Non-cardiac Rheumatism.Doubtful Rheumatism.Non-Rheumatism.Total.Rheumatism with Carditis.Non-cardiac Rheumatism.Doubtful Rheumatism.Non-Rheumatism.Total.
  • Page -
    The subjoined table shows a classification of the cases seen:— Table IV.
    Classification.Downham."Elizabeth Bullock."Putney.
  • Page -
    Table V.
    Downham."Elizabeth Bullock."Putney.Total.
  • Page -
    Table VI.
    Downham." Elizabeth Bullock."Putney.
    Cases of rheumatism and chorea with carditis.Cases of rheumatism and chorea without carditis.Doubtful rheumatism.Non-rheumatism.Cases of rheumatism and chorea with carditis.Cases of rheumatism and chorea without carditis.Doubtful rheumatism.Non-rheumatism.Cases of rheumatism and chorea with carditis.Cases of rheumatism and chorea without carditis.Doubtful rheumatism.Non-rheumatism.
  • Page -
    To judge the persistence of symptoms, 127 cases from Group (a); 40 from Group (o); 67 from Group (c); and 138 from Group (d) were kept under observation for six months or more (in some cases over three years). The progress was as follows :— Table VII.
  • Page -
    With regard to pains distributed through the bones and muscles in general, the location was as follows in the various groups :— Table VIII.
  • Page -
    Arterial Pressure.—
  • Page -
    The following table gives the weekly average of children fed in the ordinary public elementary schools during 1931 (excluding special schools):—
    Dinners.Milk.Cod liver oil and malt.
  • Page -
    The following table gives the roll of the day open-air schools on 19th December 1931:—
  • Page -
    The following school journeys were made during the year 1931:—
    School.Period.Hostel.No. of Children.
  • Page -
    A decrease in minor ailments at the Columbia Market nursery school is shown in the following table, submitted by the school nurse:—
  • Page -
    The acquired cases were classified as:—
    Cause of deafness.Boys.Girls.Total.
  • Page -
    The percentage of acquired deafness due to this cause since 1919 is shewn in the following table:—
    Year.Total acquired cases.Acquired cases due to congenital syphilis.Percentage.
  • Page -
    Classification has been made of all children who were in the Council's schools for the blind in the spring of 1931. The total number was 218. Of these, 213 were school children of 16 years old and under, the remaining five being girls of 16 to 18 under training at Elm Court (blind) school.
  • Page -
    Excluding a girl of 18 in the group of five undergoing training at Elm Court, the following is an analysis of the 45 cases of ophthalmia neonatorum in schools for the blind with reference to their year of birth :—
    Year of birth.Number of children.
  • Page -
    TABLE A. Showing the Number of Charges at Different Ages among 839 Children at Ponton-road Place of Detention during 1931.
    Nature of Charges.Stealing.Breaking, entering and stealing.Breaking and entering.Larceny and arsonBurglary.Shopbreaking.Sacrilege.Embezzlement.Forgery.Demanding money by menaces.False pretences.Travelling without ticket.Suspected person.Trespassing.Begging.Street trading unlawfully.Playing pitch and toss.Using insulting words in public.Wilful damage.Arson.Assault.Causing bodily harm.Attempted suicide.Sex offences.Abscondingfrom industrial school.Wandering.Breach of recognisances.Beyond control.Living in circumstances of moral danger.Parents of drunken habits.Education Act.Place of safety cases.Total.
  • Page -
    TABLE B. Showing the Physical Defects found among 659 Boys and 106 Girls at Ponton-road Place of Detention during 1931.
    Defects.Poor nutrition.Poor physique.Teeth, 3 or more decayed.Defective vision, 6—12 or more.Diseases of eyes.Squint and ptosis.Deafness.Diseases of ears.Throat and nose.Enlarged cervical glands.Heart.Lungs.Skin diseases.Rickets.Chorea.Rheumatism.Epilepsy.Congenital syphilis.Albuminuria.Anramia.Endocrine disorders.Hernia.Affections of testis and cord.Injuries to limbs.Scars of old operations.Developmental errors.Deformities.Stigmata of degeneration.Facial spasms and other nervous signs.Stammer.Somnambulism.Enuresis.
  • Page -
    TABLE C. Showing the Results of Mental Tests among 674 children at Ponton-road Place of Detention during 1931.
    BOYS.Age groups.Total.Total per cent.
    14-15Per cent.11-13 Per cent.8-10Per cent.5-7Per cent.
  • Page -
    Defective children. Admission Examinations with a view to the admission of children to special schools were examination made5,684 cases, a decrease of 331 from the number examined in the previous year, and 19,293 others were re-examined during the year either at school or at County Hall. The following table shows the number of children nominated for examination and the recommendations made:—
    Defect.Number nominated.Suitable for admission toReturned to elementary school.Invalided as for the time unfit for any school.Notified under M.D. Acts.
    Boys-Girls.Blind school.Myope class.Swanley.Boys-Girls.Boys.Girls.Boys.Girls.
  • Page -
    Children The following statement shows the nature of the conditions found among the admitted to children certified as suitable for admission to schools for the physically defective at P.D. schools, the admission examinations during the year:—
  • Page -
    The following statement gives an analysis of the 370 cases examined for admission to special schools for the physically defective, in which the children were either returned to elementary schools or were invalided as unfit for any school:— Children returned to elementary schools or invalided.
    Morbid conditions.Elementary school.Invalided.
  • Page -
    The special schools were visited at least once a quarter, and every child present Rota visits to was seen at least once during the year; the total number of examinations made was the schools. 18,681, and in addition 612 special examinations were made of children already on the rolls of special schools in connection with applications for non-enforcement of attendance and for similar reasons. As a result of the rota visits and the re-examina-tions the following re-classifications took place:—
    Transferred from schools forRe-classified for transfer to—
    P.D. school.M.D. school.Sight saving school.Blind school.Deaf school.Hard of hearing school.White Oak, SwanleyOpen- air school.Epileptic colony.
  • Page -
    There were also 544 cases returned on improvement to elementary schools, or, when over 14 years of age, excluded as no longer certifiable. The details are as follow:—
    Special school classification.
    P.D.M.D.Blind.Deaf.Sight saving.Hard of hearing.Total.
  • Page -
    The following table shows the number of children who improved to such an extent that they were able to return from the schools for physically defective children to the ordinary elementary schools, or were "no longer certifiable" as defective between the ages of 14 and 16 years:—
    Defect.Cases passed no longer certifiable.Cases passed fit to return to elementary schools.
  • Page -
    The following table shows the age groups of children in day special schools on 31st March, 1931:-
  • Page -
    The following table shows the number of cases notified by the education authority under Section 2 (2) of the Mental Deficiency Act, 1913, as amended by the Mental Deficiency Act, 1927, during the year 1931 (the figures in brackets being those for the previous year):—
    (a) Feeble_minded—Boys.Girls.
  • Page -
    During the year 8,534 entrants to the permanent education service, and candidates for teaching awards and for scholarships, presented themselves for examination. The following table indicates the numbers submitted for each grade and the results of the examinations:—
    Status.Number examined.Number fit.Number rejected.Number who withdrew after being referred for remediable defects or were not due for reexamination until 1932.
  • Page -
    Breakjast— Hot, cooked meal, i.e.,
  • Page -
  • Page -
    Infectious diseases in schools. The numbers of cases of infectious illness reported by the teachers as occurring amongst school children during 1931, compared with similar figures reported during the preceding five years, are shown below :—
    Year.DiphtheriaScarlet fever.Measles and German measles.Whooping cough.Chicken-pox.Mumps.Scabies.Ophthalmia.Ringworm.
  • Page -
    The following table gives information regarding the schools specially visited by the school medical staff during the year:—
    Division.Diphtheria.Scarlet fever.Smallpox.
    Number of visits.Number of depts. visited.Number of children examined.Number of visits.Number of depts. visited.Number of children examined.Number ol visits.Number examined.
  • Page -
    The following is a summary of the cases treated during the year ended December, 1931:— On arrival:—
  • Page -
    Positive casts treated, as follows (16 operations):—
  • Page -
    Negative cases treated as follows (9 operations):——
  • Page -
  • Page -
    Organisms isolated—
  • Page -
    Investigation of virulence o) cases with K.L.B—
  • Page -
    The following statement shows the number of cases occurring amongst the children during the year, grouped in school terms, for each division:—
    Division.Spring term.Summer term.Autumn term.Total.
  • Page -
    where cases of smallpox occurred, and the daily supervision in school of home contacts of smallpox.
    Division.No. of visits to schools. (No. of schools concerned in brackets.)No. of cases of smallpox found as a result of examination by school nurse.No. of children excluded by school nurse with suspicious symptoms.No. of home contacts supervised in school.No. of absentees (home contacts) reported to medical officer of health.No. of hours devoted to work.
  • Page -
    The school nurses also kept under supervision, for varying periods, the children in schools where the prevalence of the diseases specified below made such a course desirable:—
  • Page -
    The following table shows the number of cases of scalp ringworm amongst the Ringworm children in the Council's schools dealt with during 1931 compared with the figures for other years:—
    Year.Fresh cases.Cured cases.Cases outstanding at the end of the year.Percentage of cures affected by X-ray treatment.
  • Page -
    The following statement shows the numbers of school cases reported weekly by the head teachers, up to Christmas, during recent epidemics:—
  • Page -
    STATISTICAL TABLES. Table I. Medical Inspection, 1931. (a) Routine Inspections.
  • Page -
    Table 11. (a) Dejects found at medical inspections in 1931. Elementary and special schools.
    Disease or defect. •Routine inspections—-Defects.Special inspections— Defects.
    Requiring treatment.Requiring observation.Requiring treatment.Requiring observation.
    Elementary schools.Special schools.Elementary schools.Special schools.
  • Page -
    (6) Children found at routine medical inspection to require treatment (excluding uncleanliness and denial disease).
    Age group.Inspected.Found to require treatment.Percentage requiring treatment.
  • Page -
    Table III. (a) Exceptional children in London in 1931.
  • Page -
    Table III—continued. Exceptional children in London in 1931—continued.
  • Page -
    (6) Return of children suffering from more than one defect, 1931.
    Day M.D.Residential M.D.Day Blind.Residential Blind.Day Deaf.Residential Deaf.Epileptic Colony.Total.
  • Page -
    Table IV. Treatment table. Group I.—Minor ailments, excluding uncleanliness, for which see Group V.
    Disease or defect.Defects treated or under treatment.
    Under Council's scheme.Otherwise.Total.
  • Page -
    Group II.—Defective vision and squint (excluding eye defects treated as minor ailments, for which see Group I).
    Disease or defect.Defects dealt with.
    Under Council's scheme.Otherwise.Total.
  • Page -
    Group III.—Treatment of defects of the throat and nose. Number of defects.
    Received operative treatment.Total.Received other forms of treatment.Total number treated.
    Under Council's scheme.Private practitioner or hospital.
  • Page -
    Group IV.—Dental defects.
  • Page -
    Group V.—Uncleanliness and verminous conditions.
  • Page -
    Table V. Medical inspection.—Number of children examined, 1921-1931.
    Year.Routine examinations.Special examinations.Re-inspections.Examinations at special enquiries into outbreaks of infectious disease.Ionisation centre attendances.Rheumatism supervisory centre attendances.
  • Page -
    Table VI. Medical treatment.—Number of cases treated under the Council's scheme and by other agencies, 1921-1931.
  • Page -
    Table VII. Medical Inspection in Secondary and Trade Schools. Summary of Results of Examination.
    Age Group.(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)
    No. of children examined in detail.Nutrition.Clothing.Skin and Hair.Teeth.Nose and throat defects.Enlarged glands.External eye disease.Vision.N umber of children wearing glasses.Ear disease.Hearing defective.Speech defects.Heart and Circulation.Anaemia.Lung defects.Nervous system.Digestive system.Spine.Flat-foot.Other deformities.Defects of U.G. system.Other defects.
    Excellent.Normal.Below normal.Bad (i.e., \ Malnutrition)Good.Fair.Poor.Olean.Dirty.Pediculi present.Sound.Less than 4 decayed.4 or more decayed.G/6 in both eyes.6/9 in either eye.6/12 or worse in either eye.
    l.C.C. scholars.Fee-payers.