London's Pulse: Medical Officer of Health reports 1848-1972

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London County Council 1955

[Report of the Medical Officer of Health for London County Council]


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152 tables in this report

  • Page 3
    LONDON ADMINISTRATIVE COUNTY VITAL STATISTICS, 1955 Figures in brackets are for 1954
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  • Page 3
    Deaths of infants :—
  • Page 3
    Maternal mortality :—
    PostabortionOther pregnancy and childbirthTotal
  • Page 10
    The total births allocated to London for 1955 were:
  • Page 12
    There were 3,827 illegitimate live births (7.7 per cent, of the total live births). The figures in recent years are:
    YearIllegitimate live birthsIllegitimate live births as a percentage of total live births
    London A.C.England and Wales
  • Page 13
    The leading causes of death in London in 1955 were as follows:
    DeathsRate per 1,000 population
  • Page 14
    Rates for specified age groups since 1948 are shown below : London A.C.: Cancer Mortality Rates per 1,000 living
    Age and Sex19481949195019511952195319541955
  • Page 15
    Mortality (per 1,000) from cardiovascular, renal disease and bronchitis
  • Page 16
    in the present century. At ages under 55, where treatment is more effective, the number of deaths in 1955 was 21 which compares as follows with figures for previous years:
  • Page 17
    The distribution of causes of death in the first four weeks of life in descending order of magnitude in 1954 and 1955 was as follows:
    CauseNo. of deathsPer cent, of total
  • Page 18
    A consideration of these two groups together allows for a better assessment of the problems of causation common to both. Comparative rates for perinatal mortality per 1,000 total births are given below for London and England and Wales.
    Year(s)LondonEngland and Wales
  • Page 18
    A summary of maternal mortality statistics is given below. Comparative figures for England and Wales in recent years are shown in Table 8 (page 185).
    YearLive births and stillbirthsDeaths in pregnancy or child-birth excluding abortionPost-abortion deaths
  • Page 19
    Cause of deathPost-abortionOther pregnancy and child birthTotal
  • Page 22
    Although the number of deaths from influenza in 1955 (164) was nearly double the abnormally low figure of 83 registered in 1954, mortality from the disease was lighter than average, as will be seen from the following table giving the number of deaths from influenza in recent years.
  • Page 23
    The ratio ot notifications to deaths at various ages was as follows:
    AgeDeathsNotificationsDeaths as percentage of notifications
  • Page 24
    The number of notifications in the three main age groups was as follows Notifications by age
  • Page 24
    The variations in the proportion of notifications falling in the 0-4 age group in recent years are seen in the following table:
  • Page 25
    The following Table shows the distribution of heart disease deaths of persons under 45 years, according to age, in recent years:
    Deaths from heart disease under 45 yearsRate per 1,000 living
  • Page 36
    Table T.l— Tuberculosis—Statutory notifications and deaths—Administrative County of London, 1921-55 (a)
    Year(s)Pulmonary tuberculosisNon-pulmonary tuberculosis
    Statutory notificationsDeathsStatutory notificationsDeaths
    No.Annual rate per 1,000 livingNo.Annual rate per 1,000 livingNo.Annual rate per 1,000 livingNo.Annual rate per 1,000 living
  • Page 37
    T able T.2— Pulmonary Tuberculosis—Statutory notifications and deaths by age and sex— Administrative County of London, 1946-55 Rates per 1,000 living (i) Notifications
  • Page 37
    (ii) Deaths
  • Page 38
    T able T.3— Non-pulmonary tuberculosis—Statutory notifications and deaths by age and sex— Administrative County of London, 1946-55 Rates per 1,000 living (i) Notifications
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    (ii) Deaths
  • Page 39
    T able T.4— Tuberculosis—Statutory notifications by age groups— Administrative County of London, 1955
    Form of tuberculosis notifiedSexNumber of notifications of new cases of tuberculosis by ageTotal all ages
  • Page 39
    T able T.5— Statutory notification of non-pulmonary tuberculosis— Distribution according to site and age, 1955
    Site of tuberculous lesionNumbers of notifications of new cases of non-pulmonary tuberculosis by ageTotal all ages
  • Page 39
    T able T.6— Patients on the registers*—Administrative County of London, 1946-55
  • Page 40
    T able T.7— Condition of new cases and their contacts
  • Page 40
    Table T.8— Summary of investigations into tuberculosis ' incidents ' at Council establishments in 1955
    EstablishmentNotified caseChildrenAdults
    Tuberculin testedPositive reactionX-rayedAbnormalX-rayedAbnormal
  • Page 41
    T able T.9— Tuberculosis notifications and mass radiography details, 1955, by occupations
    Mass Radiography—1955
    Registrar-Generals Short Classification of EmploymentPopulation mid 1951Tuberculosis NotificationsNumber examinedCases of tuberculosis found
    MalesFemalesNumberRate* per 1,000NumberRate* per 1,000NumberRate* per 1,000NumberRate* per 1,000NumberRate † per 1,000NumberRate † per 1,000
  • Page 42
    Table T.10— Mass radiography findings in London residents
    AgeSexNumber examinedActive Tuberculosis confirmed inCase rate per 1,000 examinedPositive sputum found inInfective case rate per cent
  • Page 43
    T able T.11— Summary of services provided for tuberculous patients, 1952-55
  • Page 44
    T able T.12— Principal tuberculosis statistics—Metropolitan Boroughs and the Administrative County of London, 1955
    Metropolitan BoroughsEstimated home population '955New notificationsNew notifications per 1,ooo populationDeaths ftom tuberculosisTuberculosis deaths per l,ooo populationPulmonary tuberculosis deaths per 1,000population aged 15 and overNumber of tuberculosis cases on clinic registers at 31.12.55Cases on register per 1,000populationMass X-ray findings
    PulmonaryTuberculosis of. Meninges and C.N.S.Other non-pulmonary tuberculosisTotalPulmonaryNon-pulmonary tuberculosisTotal deathsNumber of pulmonary cases found per 1,000 adults examined
    TotalPercentage sputum positive during 1955
  • Page 45
    Table T.13— Tuberculosis—Contact examinations at Chest Clinics
    Chest clinicsEstimated population servedTotal new cases of tuberculosis (all forms)New contacts seenNew contacts not determinedNew contacts diagnosedNew contacts found tuberculousPer cent, new contacts found tuberculous among diagnosed contactsCalculated rate of new contacts seen per 100 new cases
  • Page 46
    T able T.14— Tuberculosis—Annual chest X-ray examination of mental defectives at senior occupation centres, 1955
    DivisionOccupation centre E.B.—elder boys E.G.—elder girlsAverage roll at time of examinationDate of examinationNo. X-rayedNo. of cases of T.B. discovered
    Under 15Over 15
  • Page 46
    T able T.15— B.C.G. vaccination under L.C.C. schemes in 1955
  • Page 47
    Table T.16— B.C.G. vaccination of school children in 1955— Divisional figures
    DivisionNo. of 13 years' old school childrenTotal No. of consentsAlleged contacts of known cases Consents included in (2)No. of children tested and read by B.C.G. unitsChildren not dealt with because of refusal of consent or absencePositive reactors (among (4))No. of negative reactors vaccinated by B.C.G. units
    No.Per cent. of (0No.Per cent.
  • Page 49
    During 1955 samples of milk taken for this purpose numbered 201 and the results of the biological examinations were as follows:
    DesignationSamples examinedResults of examination
    T.B. bacillus isolatedT.B. bacillus NOT isolatedTest not completed1Percentage positive of completed tests
  • Page 51
    Table (i) Number of new registrations during the year with percentage recommended to obtain treatment
    AgePrincipal cause of defective visionTotal
    CataractGlaucomaRetrolental fibroplasiaOther conditions
  • Page 51
    Table (ii) Re-examination of persons recommended to obtain treatment
    Principal cause of defective visionTotal
    CataractGlaucomaRetrolental fibroplasiaOther conditions
  • Page 52
    Registration of nursing homes At the end of the year there were 41 nursing homes on the register, one fewer than in 1954. In the 41 homes there were 828 beds distributed as follows :
    Number of beds in homeNumber of homesPatients accommodated
  • Page 55
    The following sections of this report deal in greater detail with many aspects of the work done and the following table summarises the number of samples examined.
  • Page 63
    G rajton Hall, Lamberivell —Adaptations or existing building to provide a new Scheme occupation centre. It was decided not to proceed with this project owing to the high abandoned cost of acquisition and maintenance of the building.
    DivisionPremisesServiceWork involved
  • Page 64
    Continued from previous page...
    DivisionPremisesServiceWork involved
  • Page 64
    The programme submitted to the Minister of Health for the year 1956-57 included the following projects:
    DivisionPremisesWork involved
  • Page 64
    Arrangements were also made for the undermentioned schemes, which no longer require individual approval by the Minister, to be dealt with in the year 1956-57 :
    PremisesWork involved
  • Page 64
    The following projects requiring the approval of the Minister were proposed for inclusion in the building programme for the year 1957-58 :
    DivisionPremisesWork involved
  • Page 67
    Acquisitions and leases Opportunities were taken whenever possible to acquire suitable properties and sites for health service purposes or to secure long-term leasehold tenancies. The following leasehold tenancies and acquisition were completed during the year :
    DivisionPropertyInterest obtainedService
  • Page 67
    The following tables give comparative statistics.
    Clinics at end of year (including combined ante-natal and post-natal)Sessions per monthAttendancesPercentage of pregnant women making at least one attendance at ante-natal clinic
  • Page 68
    Continued from previous page...
    Clinics at end of yearSessions per monthAttendances
    At post-natal clinicsAt combined ante- and post-natal clinicsAt post-natal clinicsAt combined ante- and post-natal clinics
  • Page 69
    The residential unit at the Violet Melchett infant welfare centre, a voluntary organisation providing services on behalf of the Council under Section 22 of the National Health Service Act, 1946, continued to provide treatment for mothers and babies experiencing breast feeding difficulties and for babies with dietetic upsets. Comparative figures are :
    MothersAccompanied infantsUnaccompanied infants
  • Page 69
    Cards were sent to parents on their children's birthday anniversaries to invite them to toddlers' sessions where they might discuss the care of their children and obtain a full medical examination.
    YearClinics at end of year (including toddlers')Sessions per monthAttendancesPercentage of infants attending a centre at least once in the first year of life
    Under 1 yearOver 1 yearSpecial toddlers
  • Page 70
    The following table brings out the trend in consumption in London :
    Welfare foodAverage weekly consumption— Six months endedAverage weekly consumption— Six months endedPercentage increase or decrease in consumption
    1.1.552.7.55(+or -)
  • Page 73
    566 (642) children were referred by the Children's Officer for opinion as to their suitability on medical grounds for adoption and boarding-out. 2 (3) children were considered unfit and the remainder were grouped as follows :
  • Page 73
    The number of maintained and grant-aided day nurseries and the total number ot places provided at 31st December, 1955, and a comparison with the previous year are given in the following tables :
    Number of day nurseries at 31st December.
  • Page 74
    The following table shows the numbers of minders and children cared for at 31.12.55
  • Page 74
    The number of private day nurseries registered under the Nurseries and Child-Minders Regulation Act, 1948, and the number of places provided at 31.12.55 were :
  • Page 76
    Total number of domiciliary confinements attended by London County Council, Hospital and Nursing Association midwives —1953-1955
    YearNumber of confinementsNumber of confinementsGrand Total
    Doctor not bookedDoctor booked
    L.C.C.District Nursing AssociationHospitalL.C.C.District Nursing AssociationHospital
  • Page 78
    The lecture programme was :
  • Page 78
    Notifications of intention to practise were received as follows :
  • Page 79
    The annual lecture-demonstration course was attended by 45 midwives from London, Middlesex and Surrey who visited three maternity hospitals in London. The programme in October, 1955, was :
    HospitalSubject and lecturer
  • Page 79
    Fees paid under the Midwives Act to medical practitioners called in by midwives in emergency were as follows :
  • Page 79
    HEALTH VISITING AND NURSING SERVICES the average strength of health visitors available during the year for health visiting duties apart from the tuberculosis and school health services was the equivalent of 375 full-time units. In addition to their clinic and other duties these health visitors made 816,483 home visits.
    Home visits1952195319541955
  • Page 80
    The total number or visits paid was 1,953,182 compared with l,873,88l in 1954, giving an average of 13 visits daily for each nurse (13 in 1954). The average case load of a nurse at any one time was 24 (23 in 1954). Treatments completed totalled 64,256 (61,352 in 1954), and there were 12,535 patients being nursed at the end of the year (11,792 in 1954). The completed treatments related to the following conditions :
    NumberPercentage of total
  • Page 80
    These patients were referred to the nursing associations by :
    NumberPercentage of total
  • Page 83
    The following figures illustrate the extent or the increase over the last three years :
  • Page 83
    The consistent pattern of cases assisted is shown by the percentage figures for the last three years :
    1953 Per cent.1954 Per cent.1955 Per cent.
  • Page 84
    The total number of children immunised against diphtheria for the first time in 1955 was 34,529. The figures for the last seven years are shown below :
    (All ages)1949195019511952195319541955
  • Page 85
    The following figures show the number of children immunised against whooping cough in the past four years, including those receiving the combined antigen which protected them against both diphtheria and whooping cough.
  • Page 85
    Vaccination Facilities provided for the vaccination of infants against smallpox are similar to those for diphtheria immunisation. The percentage of vaccinations of children under one year of age compared with the annual number of live births has increased steadily over the past seven years :
    Number vaccinatedPercentage of annual live births
  • Page 85
    Re-vaccination of older children is undertaken under the Council s scheme. The numbers of school children re-vaccinated during the past three years are shown below :
  • Page 89
    Vehicle strength at the end of 1955 was as follows:
  • Page 90
    Analysis of Accident Section work
    (a) Numbers of patients :19541955
  • Page 91
    Work performed by the directly provided service
    YearAccident SectionGeneral SectionTotal
    PatientsNon-patient carrying journeysTotal journeys (calls)MileagePatientsJourneysMileagePatientsJourneysMileage
  • Page 91
    Work performed by the agency and supplementary services
    YearAmbulance Dept.— Joint Committee Order of St. John & British Red Cross SocietyHospital Car ServiceWest Ham C.B.C.Total
  • Page 91
    Work performed by both sections of the directly provided service and by the agency and supplementary services
    YearTotal Emergency WorkTotal General Section WorkGrand Total
  • Page 92
    The following are particulars of new cases and attendances :
    YearNew casesAttendancesStaff at the end of the year (in terms of whole units)
  • Page 92
    Recuperative holidays With the exception of 1954, when there was an increase in recommendations for schoolchildren and a slight increase in respect of expectant and nursing mothers, the demand for recuperative holidays has declined since 1950. The admission figures for 1955 as compared with the previous three years were : Admissions to recuperative holiday homes
    YearUnaccompanied childrenAccompanied childrenExpectant and nursing mothersOther adultsTotal
    Under 5 yearsSchool children
  • Page 93
    The table below gives the number ot patients completing treatment and or detaulters as shown by analysis of the returns from the clinics :
  • Page 95
    MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES Lunacy and Mental Treatment Acts during the year, 8,346 cases of persons‡ alleged to be suffering from mental illnes: were referred to the mental welfare officers, compared with 8,690 in 1954. The following table shows how they were dealt with :
  • Page 95
    The ultimate disposal or the patients admitted to observation wards (including 129 patients in wards on 1st January, 1955) is shown below :
  • Page 96
    Four psychiatric social workers were employed full-time to interview and advise persons suffering from psychiatric illness needing help with their personal problems. During the year 268 new cases were referred from the following sources :
  • Page 97
    Mental Deficiency Acts The following table shows the sources from which cases were brought to notice under Statistics the Mental Deficiency Acts and the action taken thereon :
    Sourccs of information1952195319541955Totals from 1.4.14 to 31.12.55
  • Page 97
    The position at 31st December, 1955, with regard to the cases referred to in the last column of the preceding table is shown below, together with the position on the same date in the three preceding years :
  • Page 97
    * This figure includes cases on licence who were visited at regular intervals by officers of the Council on behalf of the regional hospital boards as follows : 1952, 259; 1953, 236 ; 1954, 247 ; 1955, 212.
  • Page 98
    The following is a summary of the cases dealt with and comparable figures for the three preceding years:
  • Page 101
    The accommodation available in all centres at 31st December, 1955, was as follows:
  • Page 104
    Details of the medical inspections carried out in 1955, with comparable figures for the two previous years, are as follows :
  • Page 104
    The percentages of these children who were referred for treatment (other than for infestation or teeth) compared with the preceding years were : Pupils referred for treatment
    Age group and sex195319541955
  • Page 105
    The following table shows the percentages of the principal defects (other than infestation, teeth or errors of refraction) found in pupils of all age groups inspected at general medical inspections and referred for treatment or observation, with comparable figures for 1953 and 1954.
  • Page 105
    Pupils receiving school meals, extra milk or vitamin capsules on the recommendation of the school doctor are re-inspected each term. During 1955 the number of such re-inspections was 68,051. The classification of general condition recorded at these ' nutrition' re-inspections, with comparable figures for previous years, was as follows:
  • Page 106
    The school meals service aims at concentrating the maximum food value into the quantity of food a child is willing to eat, and the following standards have been set:
    Age groupMinimum number of calories
  • Page 106
    The following table gives the results of such vision tests carried out during 1955:
    Visal acuity (with glasses, if worn)Percentage referred for treatment
    6/6 %6/9 %6/12 or worse %% wearing glassesTotalAlready wearing glassesNot wearing glasses
  • Page 107
    The following table gives the results of the personal hygiene inspections carried out during 1955:
    Total Number of InspectionsPupils found to be verminous*
  • Page 107
    The following table shows the results of the operation of this 'cleansing scheme' during 1955:
  • Page 108
    the following table, and may be attributed to improved social standards, greater concern on the part of parents, and the effectiveness of the cleansing scheme.
    YearNo. of pupils on school rollsNo. of nurses' hygiene inspectionsNo. of occasions on which pupils were found to be 'verminous'Column (4) as a percentage of column (3)No. of individual children comprising column (4)Percentage of the school population of the individual children in col. (6)
  • Page 108
    The following table gives the main contra-indications disclosed at the medical inspections of the 21,722 school leavers during 1955:
  • Page 110
    tde records of tde audiometric tests in 1955 were as follows:
    Age 7+ (7 Divs.)Age 5+ (2 Divs./)
  • Page 112
    At the end of the year there were 112 school treatment centres, 91 run directly by the Council and 21 by voluntary committees. The following table shows the number of clinics available in school treatment centres for the treatment of each defect (comparable figures for 1954 are shown in brackets) : Type of clinic
  • Page 113
    The report of the children s care organisers working in the out-patient department of Guy's Hospital, illustrates the wide scope of this liaison between the school health service and the hospitals. The following is a short statistical summary of the report:
    Hospital departmentNew casesTotal attendancesDischarged— treatment complete
  • Page 114
    Cases of infectious illness involving exclusion or absence reported from schools in 1955 and preceding years
    YearChicken-poxDiphtheriaGerman measlesImpetigoMeaslesMumpsOphthalmia and ConjunctivitisPoliomyelitisRingwormScabiesScarlet feverWhooping cough
  • Page 115
    Handicapped pupils At the end of the year special educational treatment was being provided for more than 10,500 pupils, and the following table shows the main categories of handicap and numbers of pupils receiving full-time special educational treatment:
    Day special schoolsBoarding special schoolsHospitalsNon-Council boarding schools, hostels, foster-homes
  • Page 115
    During the year the numbers of new formal ascertainments were as follows:
  • Page 115
    The following table gives details of the numbers of children found to be no longer in need of special educational treatment during 1955:
  • Page 116
    after leaving school. Details of the numbers reported under this section are given below:
  • Page 117
    Juvenile rheumatism Following a slight but steady decline during the past three years, there has this year been an abrupt fall in the number of cases of juvenile rheumatism referred for admission to Queen Mary's Hospital for Children, Carshalton.
  • Page 118
    Percentage of children with cardiac involvement on admission during recent years has been:
  • Page 118
    The condition on admission of the children admitted during 1955 was as follows:
  • Page 119
    The following table gives details of the work carried out during the year at the four units:
    BrixtonBatterseaEarls CourtWoodberry DownTotal
  • Page 121
    Table I
    Total EstablishmentStaffEquivalent in Full-time StaffSessionsTotal Sessions
    Total Number employedFulltimePart-timeSchool ServiceMCW ServiceSchool ServiceMCW ServiceSchool ServiceMCW Service
  • Page 122
    In Table II the percentage of schoolchildren found to require treatment has, for the second successive year risen quite sharply and is shown as 11 per cent, higher than two years ago. Table II
  • Page 122
    Total extractions, however, have fallen while fillings have increased and a gratifying figure is shown in Table III; the continued improvement in the ratio of permanent teeth restored to those extracted. T able III Ratio of permanent teeth restored to permanent teeth extracted in schoolchildren
  • Page 124
    Table IV
  • Page 124
    Table V Attendances and treatments of maternity and child welfare patients
  • Page 130
    the total capital expenditure on the health services of the Council in the year ended 31st March, 1955, was £84,931, details of which are as follows:
  • Page 130
    The gross cost of the various services in 1954-55—including central administrative charges but excluding debt charges—and the contributions recovered from recipients of the services were :
    ServiceCostAmount recovered in charges
  • Page 131
    The net cost of the services after allowing for Government grant, expressed in terms of rate in the £ was 11-22d., divided as follows:
  • Page 143
    The service has grown as follows :
  • Page 143
    Educational work in the welfare centres has been still further fostered as the following figures show :
  • Page 154
    * The general movements resulting from this change and also to a lesser extent the changes in the same year resulting from the revision of the International List of Causes of Death, are estimated to be :
    CauseApproximate change as a percentage of those formerly assigned to this cause †CauseApproximate change as a percentage of those formerly assigned to this cause †
  • Page 166
    T able I — Populations of Boroughs
    BoroughPopulations (thousands)Intercensus Variations (per cent.)Percentage of Males in Population
  • Page 167
    Table II– Density indices of Boroughs
    BoroughPercentage of the population living more than 2 to a roomPersons per room
  • Page 168
    Table III—– Number offoreign-born persons enumerated at each census and their percentage of total population in each area
    No.Per cent.No.Per cent.No.Per cent.No.Per cent.No.Per cent.
  • Page 169
    Table IIIA— Foreign.born residents by nationality
    Country of originPercentage of all Foreign.born in London
  • Page 169
    Table IV— Standardized Deatd-rates
  • Page 170
    Table V— Administrative County of London death-rates per 1,000
    Age (yrs)1911-131950-52
  • Page 170
    T able VI— Death-rates for certain causes for ages 45 and over
    Cause of deathCancerHeart DiseasesBronchitis
  • Page 170
    Since the overcrowding indices had been so drastically reduced by 1951 it seems of interest to see whether, as in the past, the indices of living conditions are correlated with the death rate. Excluding the City of London from the calculations, the correlation coefficients between the socio-economic conditions of the boroughs and their standardized deaths rates are as follows :
    Correlations1911-13 r1920-22 r1930-32 r1950-52 r
  • Page 171
    T able VII— Legitimate births per 1,000 married women aged 15-44
  • Page 172
    of Table VII with Tables II and III suggests that the birth rate, like the death rate, is correlated with the density indices. The correlations are :
    Correlations1911-13 r1920-22 r1930-32 r1950-52 r
  • Page 173
    T able VIII— Infant mortality
  • Page 174
    with social indices exhibited by the standardized death rates and the legitimate birth rates are not apparent in these infant mortality rates. The correlations are :
    Correlations1911.13 r1920.22 r1930.32 r1950.52 r
  • Page 174
    The general death rate, crude or standardized, has been frequently used as a broad measure of the health of the people, and recently the birth rate has given an indirect measure of the conditions of living since it has shown a steep gradation with social class. The correlations of infant mortality with these rates for the last four census periods are:
    Correlations1911-13 t1920-22 r1930-32 r1950-52 r
  • Page 175
    T able IX— Deaths in the first year of life
    Age (mths)1911-131920-221930-321950-52
  • Page 175
    The very different structure of infant mortality in 1950-52 suggested that it would be of interest to examine the relation of infant mortality and socio-economic indices by ages:
    Age (months)YearsProportion of Population in Social Classes IV and V rPersons per room rPercentage living more than two to a room r
  • Page 176
    The relationship between the social indices and infant mortality may rest partly on the population of the boroughs. Most boroughs conform to the official description of a large town having a population of over 50,000; they were divided arbitrarily into three groups* and the correlations found between the percentage living more than two to a room and infant mortality and neonatal mortality:
    PopulationNo. of BoroughsPercentage living more than two to a room (1951) correlated with
    Neonatal MortalityInfant Mortality
  • Page 176
    It is of some interest to see whether the relationship between the various indices of socio-economic status have changed during the period :
    Correlations1920-22 r1930-32 r1950-52 r
  • Page 177
    The result or this policy is that the population or London was one million less in 1951 than in 1931 (Table I), a dechne of 23-9 per cent, at all ages, and of 30-9 per cent, at ages 0-15 years. The magnitude of the change is shown by the densities for the whole :
    Overcrowding Index1911192119311951
  • Page 179
    Table 1— Population (b)—Administrative County of London, 1901-55
    YearMid-year (c) estimate of population by the Registrar-General by age groupsAverage age (years)
  • Page 180
    Table 2— Live births and still-births—Administrative County of London, 1931-55
    Year(s)Live birthsStill-births
    No.Rate per 1,000 population*No.Rate per 1,000 total births (live and still)
  • Page 181
    Table 3— Vital statistics—Metropolitan Boroughs ana the Administrative County of Lonaon,1995 (a)
    Metropolitan BoroughsEstimated home population mid 1955Live birth rate.Death-ratesNotifications of infectious disease
    Deaths {all causes)Infant mentality (pet l,ooo live births)Heart diseaseOther circulatoryCerebral vascular lesionsPeptic ulcerPulmonary tuberculosisPneumoniaOther respiratory diseases (inc. Bronchitis)CancerVio-ItnceScarlet feverDysenteryPoliomyelitisFood PoisoningAcute pneumoniaMeaslesWhooping coughTuberculosis
    ParalyticSon ParalyticPulmonaryNon-pulmonary
  • Page 183
    Table 5— Deaths by cause—Administrative County of London, 1955
    CauseSex0—1 —5—15—25—45—65—75+Total
  • Page 184
    Table 5 ( contd.)—Deaths by cause—Administrative County of London, 1955
    CauseSex0—1 —5—15—25—45—65—75+Total
  • Page 184
    Table 6— Infant mortality—Administrative County of London, 1955
    Cause of deathAge at deathTotalRates per 1,000 live births
    Under 1 day1 to 7 days1 to 4 wks.4 wks. to 7 yr.No.MaleFemaleTotalMaleFemale
  • Page 185
    Table 7— Infant mortality by cause—Administrative County of London, 1936-1955 (Rates per 1,000 live births)
    Cause of death1936 to 19401941 to 19451946 to 195019511952195319541955
  • Page 185
    Table 8— Maternal mortality (excluding abortion)—Administrative County of London and England and Wales, 1945.55 (Rates per 1,000 total births)
  • Page 186
    Table 9— Notifiable infectious diseases — Annual number of notifications and numbers per 1,000 of population—Administrative County of London, 1934.1955
    YearAntdraxContinued feverDiphtderiaDysenteryAcute EncephalitisEnteric feverErysipelasMalariaMeaslesMeningococcal infectionOphtdalmia neonatorumPneumoniaPoliomyelitisPuerperal pyrexiaScabiesScarlet feverSmallpoxTyphusWhooping CoughFood poisoning
  • Page 187
    Table 10— Notification of ccrtain infectious diseases—distribution by age and date of notification—Administrative County of London, 52 weeks commenting week ended 8th January, 1955
    Four. weekly periods 1955DysenteryMeaslesMeningococcal infectionPneumoniaPoliomyelitisScarlet feverWhooping cough
    ParalyticNon.paralytic or not stared
  • Page 188
    T able 11— Statistics of the administrative work carried out by the Metropolitan Borough Councils in 1955.
    Erected by the Borough CouncilErected by other personsTotal number in the BoroughInspectionsRepaired as a result of informal actionDefects remedied after service of formal noticeHousing Act 1936Local Govt. (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1953 Sec. 10 (1)Water supply provided to tenement housesComplaintsObservationsIntimation notices servedNuisance notices servedAdults cleansedChildren cleansedPremises disinfectedPremises disinfestedEstablishmentEmployed at end of yearAssistants employed at end of vear
    Unfit HousesOther HousesOn complaintOn notification of illnessHouse-to-houseOther reasonsSection 11Section 12Licensed slaughterhousesOther offensive tradesDairies and milk shopsIce cream premisesCommon Lodging Houses
    Public Health (London) ActHousing ActDemolishedClosed by undertakingRooms closedUndertakings acceptedAt homeAt a cleansing station
    DemolishedPersons displacedDemolishedPersons displaced
    Underground roomsOther roomsUnderground roomsOther roomsClosing Orders made
    By ownersBy local authorityBy ownersBy local authorityNumberPersons displacedNumberPersons displaced
    NumberPersons displacedNumberPersons displacedNumberPersons displacedNumberPersons displacedNumberPersons displaced
  • Page 189
    Table 12— Treatment of venereal disease at London clinics
    YearNew casesTotal attendances
    Syphiliss. ChancreGonorrhoeaTotal venereal casesTotal non-venereal cases
  • Page 189
    Table 13— Weather during 1955 (as recorded at Kew Observatory)
    MonthMean (a) °FDifference from Average (b) °FTotal ins.Difference from Average (b) ins.Total hrs.Difference from Average (c) hrs.
  • Page 191
    The following statement shows the number of staff employed in the Public Health Department in December, 1955 (part-time staff being expressed as whole-time equivalents).
    Type of staffLocationStaff employed at other establishments (a)Total
    Head office staffDivisional staff