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London County Council 1920

Annual report of the Council, 1920. Vol. III. Public Health

Hamer, W. H.

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85 tables in this report

  • Page 5
    The distribution of the deaths by ages during 1920 is shown in the following table together with corresponding figures for earlier years.
    Year.0-1—2-5—10—15—20—25—35—45—55—65 +All ages.
  • Page 5
    The following table shows the influence of season upon infantile mortality. In the first quarter of 1921 the rate was 85 per 1,000 births.
  • Page 5
    The following table has been prepared to enable comparison to be made of the exceptional figures for 1920 with other recent years. The deaths are shown per 100,000 births.
  • Page 11
    The following is an analysis of the cases notified in London in 1920 (52 weeks):—
    Form of tuberculosis notified.Sex.Notifications on Fonn A. (Total of primary notifications received in London boroughs, other than elementary school cases, injra.)
    0—1—5—10—15—20—25—35—45—55—65 +Age not stated.Total.
  • Page 11
    The corresponding figures for 1919 (53 weeks) were as follows:—
    Form of tuberculosis notified.Sex.Notifications on Form A. (Total of primary notifications received in London boroughs, other than elementary school cases, injra.)
    0—1—5—10—15—20—25—35—45—55—65 +Age not stated.Total.
  • Page 12
    Form of tuberculosis notified.Sex.Notifications on Form B. (Primary notifications of cases discovered through medical inspection in elementary schools).Notifications on Form C. (Secondary notifications from institutions receiving cases.)
    0—5—10—15 +Total.Poor law.Other.
  • Page 20
    The age distribution was as follows:—
    Age.Under 3.3—5.5—10.10—20.20—30.30—40.40—50.50—60.Over 60.Total.
  • Page 20
    The following table shows how this figure compares with previous years dating back to the Notification Order of 1911:—
    Year.1911, from 1st Sept1912.1913.1914.1915.1916.1917.1918.1919.1920.
  • Page 20
    The subjoined table shows the age incidence of actual cases:—
    Age.Under 3.3—5.5—10.10—20.20—30.30—40.40—50.50—60.Over 60.Total.
  • Page 21
    The duration of illness from the onset of first symptoms was noted in 44 fatal cases as follows:—
  • Page 23
    An analysis of these exammations and the conditions found either at, or subsequent to, the consultation is shown in the following table:—
    Classified diagnoses.Diagnosis on clinieal grounds.Diagnosis after pathological investigation following lumbar puncture.Cerebro-spinal fluids received from infirmaries, etc.
  • Page 27
    Notified civilian cases of typhoid fever in London at ages 20—45 and 45 and upwards. Ages 20—45.
  • Page 28
    Enteric fever—Mortality per million living, 1901—1919.
    Crude rates.Standardised rates.
  • Page 31
    In the following table will be seen the number of houses, the authorised number of lodgers, the number of convictions, with the penalties inflicted, and other particulars dunng each year since the outbreak of war:—
    Year.No. of houses licensed.Authorised number of lodgers.No. of day visits by inspectors.No. of night visits.No. of prosecutions.No. of convictions.Penalties and costs.No. of cases of infectious disease.
  • Page 32
    In the following table will be seen the number of houses, the authorised number of lodgers, the number of convictions with the penalties inflicted, and other particulars during each year since these houses were licensed by the Council:—
    Year.No. of houses licensed.Authorised number of lodgers.No. of day visits.No. of night visits.No. of prosecutions.No. of convictions.Penalties and costs.No. of cases of infectious disease.
  • Page 33
    Sanitary Staffs. The subjoined table shows the number of sanitary officers and health visitors employed by the sanitary authorities in the Administrative County of London:—
    Sanitary area.Sanitary inspectors.
    Male.Female.Health visitors.
    Whole time.Part time.Whole time.Part time.
  • Page 35
    Tuble showing the number of houses in each borough in 1920; the number repaired under Section 28 of the Act of 1919; certain other particulars as to conditions in 1920 ; and the action taken by the metropolitan borough councils under the provisions of Section 17 of the Housing and Town Planning Act with regard to the making of representations and closing orders —the figures for the years 1914, 1915 to 1918, inclusive, and 1919, are included for comparison.
    Metropolitan borough.No. of houses.No. of houses for the working classes.No. of representations.No. of closing orders.No. of houses demolished.
    In borough.Inhabited by working classes.Repaired by local authority.ErectedIn course of erection.
  • Page 38
    At the beginning of the year it was estimated that accommodation would be required as follows:-
  • Page 38
    The total number of beds in use on 31st December, 1920, was as follows:—
  • Page 39
    During the year 698 cases were examined with the following results:—
  • Page 39
    In continuation of the analysis of the records made last year, the aetiological factors in a random sample of cases under the Mental Deficiency Act have been extracted.
    Percentage of frequency.Percentage of frequency.
  • Page 41
    From information received under the Notification of Births Act the following figures have been obtained showing the number of births notified by midwives:—
  • Page 41
    The number of instances of advising medical help in the practice of midwives during the year may be summarised as follows:—
  • Page 41
    The presentations of these stillborn children were as follows:—
  • Page 42
    Some additional information was obtained as to stillborn infants not macerated, of eight or more months' gestation, as follows:—
  • Page 42
    The following table gives the results of these inquiries which relate to the 445 notified cases.
    Delivery conducted byCases.Deaths.
  • Page 42
    The cause of death as stated in the death certificates in the 202 fatal cases occurring in London is shown in the following table:—
    Cause of death.Notified cases.Unnotified Cases.Total.
  • Page 45
    The following table indicates the number of foster-mothers and nurse infants from 1914 to 1920 inclusive:—
  • Page 48
    TABLE I. COUNTY OF LONDON. Vital statistics for the several metropolitan boroughs and the County of London in the year 1920. (Rates per 1,000 of civil population).
    Metropolitan borough. (In topographical order).Estimated civil population. 1920.Births.Deaths.Infant mortality per 1,000 births).Measles.Scarlet fever.Diphtheria.Whooping-cough.Typhold fever.Diarrhœa and Enteritis age 0-2 (per 1,000 births).Phthisis.Cancer.Cases of notifiable infectious disease.
    Smallpox.Scarlet fever.Diphtheria.Typhoid fever.Erysipelas.Puerperal fever (per 1,000 births).Cerebrospinal fever.
  • Page 49
    TABLE II. COUNTY OF LONDON. Statistics of the administrative work carried out during the year 1920.
    Sanitary Authority,Cowsheds.Slaughterhouses.Offensive Trades.Smoke nuisances.Underground rooms.Overcrowding.Houses let In lodgings.Common lodging houses.Cleansing of persons and rooms.Water supply.Milk. shops.Ice cream premises.Other food places
    No. licensed.No. of inspections.No. licensed.No. of inspections.No. licensed.No. of inspections.Observations.Complaints.Notices.No. illegally occupied.No. closed or otherwise remedied.Instances found.No. remedied.No. on register.No. of inspections.Prosecutions.Houses licensed.Authorised lodgers.Adults.Children.Premises or rooms.Tenement houses extra supply.No. on register.No. of inspections.No. on register.No. of inspections.No. of places.No. of Inspections.
  • Page 50 51
    TABLE III. COUNTY OF LONDON. Tuberculosis Dispensaries—Analysis of Returns, Jan.—Dec., 1920.
    1 Borough.2 Examinedforthefirsttime.3 No. includedunder (2). SufferingfromPulmonary Tuberculosis.4 No. Includedunder (2). SufferingfromNon. PulmonaryTuberculosis.5 No. Includedunder (2). FoundtobeNon-Tuberculous.6 No. Includedunder 2 inwhich theDiagnosisDoubtful.7 Total Attendances atDispensary, Includingthose incolumn 2.8 Attendances includedIn column 7 at whichsystematicexaminationsand recordswere made.9 Visitsto homesmade byDispensary Medical Officers.10 Visitato homesmade byDispensary Nurses.11 Referredto hospitalsto which Dispensary isaffiliated.12 Specimens ofsputum examined.
    Insured.Uninsured.Insured.Uninsured.Insured.Uninsured.Insured.Uninsured.Insured.Uninsured.Insured.UninsuredInsuredUninsured.Insured.Uninsured.Insured.Uninsured.InsuredUninsured.Insured.Unin. sured.
  • Page 55
    Clothings And Footware.Nutrition.Cleanliness (Head).Cleanliness (Body).
    Year.GoodFair.Poor.Excellent.Normal.Subnormal.Clean.Nits.Ver minous.Clean.Dirty.Verminous.
  • Page 56
  • Page 57
  • Page 58
    A total number of 14,617 children were referred for treatment for visual defect or 11.0 per cent. of those inspected at the eight and twelve-year old groups. This was again a fractional improvement upon the previous year.
    Eight-year Old.Twelve-year Old.
  • Page 64
    The average numbers of children's names received monthly during 1920, from each division are as follows:—
  • Page 64
    Complaint.Children.Percentage of total.
  • Page 64
    The age distribution of children absent is as follows in percentages of the total:—
  • Page 78
    The results of the work for the several years 1912-1920 of the cleansing station nurses arising out of inquiries and examinations of the district school nurses are shown in the following table:—
    Year.No. of Examinations Made.No. of Children Verminous.No. Cleansed by Parents.No. of Verminous Children Cleansed at Stations.No. of Scabies Cases Bathed at Stations.No. of Cleansings for Vermin and Scabies.
  • Page 80
    The following table gives comparative figures for the final twelve weeks of school attendance in the years 1919 and 1920:—
    Final twelve weeks.No. of necessitous children fed in public elementary schools.Number of meals to necessitous children.
  • Page 82
    TABLE showing a Series of Outbreaks or Diphtheria in N.E. London during the Three Years, 1918, 1919 and 1920.
    Essex-road. STOKE NEWINGTON GROUP.Kingsland-road. DALSTON GROUP.Mark-street HOMERTON GROUP.
  • Page 83
    Continued from previous page...
    Essex-road. Kingsland-road. mark-street.
  • Page 92
    The appended Table shows the number of fresh cases reported annually during the past decade, together with the cured cases and the number known to be suffering at the end of each year.
    Fresh cases.Cured cases.Cases outstanding at the end of theyear.Fresh casesCured cases.Cases outstanding at the end of the year.
  • Page 92
    The following table shows the number ot cases reported in the last ten years in the East End of London.
    YearNo. of cases.YearNo. of cases.
  • Page 94
    The following statement shows the nature of the conditions found among the children certified suitable for admission to physically defective schools at the admission examinations during the year:—
    Morbid condition.Boys.Girls.Total.
  • Page 94
    After careers of children formerly attending special mentally defective schools lor the year ended December 31st 1920. (Data furnished by the London Association for the Care of the Mentally Defective.)
  • Page 94
    In employment during the last year and mostly during last quarter.
    Under £1.Between £1 and £2.Between £2 and £3.Over £3.
  • Page 95
    After careers of children formerly attending schools for the physically defective. Total 1916-1920.
  • Page 97
    This is more evidenced in the following table which contrasts the frequency of types as returned from admission examinations for special schools and from examinations under the Mental Deficiency Act.
    Type of defect.Suitable for special school.Unfit for special school.Mental Deficiency Act.
  • Page 98
    The intelligence quotients calculated from the records of the examination of detectives for school purposes in recent years are shown in the following table.
    Intelligence quotient.Suitable for further trial in elementary school.Capable of deriving benefit in special school.Incapable of deriving benefit in special school.Total.
  • Page 100
    The following table shows the number tested and the proportion at each age who passed. The unit figure indicates that all succeeded, the decimals, the fraction of successes.
    Test.No. tested.Ages.
  • Page 100
    TABLE I. Number of Children inspected 1st January, 1920, to 31st December, 1920. (a) ROUTINE MEDICAL INSPECTION, 1920.
    Age.Entrants.Intermediate group.Leavers.Total at routine medical inspection. ages.Total.812.13.14.Continuation school group.Total.Elementary schools.Special schools.
  • Page 101
    TABLE II. Return of Defects found in the Course of Medical Inspection in 1920.
    Defect or disease.Routine inspection.Specials.Defect or disease.Routine inspection.Specials.
    Number referred for treatment.Number noted for observation.Number referred for treatment.Number noted for observation.Number referred for treatment.Number noted for observation.Number referred for treatment.Number noted for observation.
  • Page 101
    TABLE III. Numerical Return of all Exceptional Children in the Area in 1920.
  • Page 102
    Continued from previous page...
  • Page 103
    TABLE IV. Treatment of Defects of Children during 1920. A.—Treatment of Minor Ailments.
    Disease or defect.Number of children.
    Referred for treatment by school doctor.Treated.
    Under scheme.Otherwise.Total.
  • Page 103
    B.—Treatment of Visual Defect.
    Referred for refraction by school doctors.Submitted to refraction under scheme.Treated by private agencies.*Total number treated.
    No. refracted.No. of spectacles prescribed.No. of spectacles obtained.Other forms of treatment.
  • Page 103
    C.—Treatment of Defects of Nose and Throat.
    Referred for treatment.Received treatment.
    Under scheme.Otherwise.Total.
    Operation cases.Other cases.
  • Page 103
    D.—Treatment of Dental Defect. I.
    Inspected by dentist.Number of children dealt with in 1920.
    Referred for treatment.Treated under scheme.Re-treated under scheme.Otherwise treated.
    By dentist.By school doctor.
  • Page 103
    II. Particulars of time given and of operations undertaken.
    No. of half-days dentist to inspection.No. of half-days dentist to treatment.No. of attendances made by children.No. of teeth extracted.No. of fillings.No. of other operations.No. of general anaesthetics.
  • Page 104
    TABLE V. Summary of Treatment of Defects as shown in Table IV.
    Disease or defect.Number of children.
    Referred for treatment.Treated.
    Under scheme.Otherwise.Total.
  • Page 104
    TABLE VI. Summary relating to Children Medically Inspected at the Routine Inspections during the year 1920.
  • Page 105
    TABLE VII. Routine Inspections, 1920.
    Clothing and footgear.Nutrition.Cleanliness.Condition of teeth.Acuity of vision.Mental condition.
  • Page 106
    TABLE VIII. Summary of Medical Inspection, 1920. Elementary Schools.
    Entrants.Age 8.Age 12.Age 14.*Total.Special schools.
  • Page 107
    TABLE IX. Medical Inspection of Students in Secondary Schools, Training Colleges and Trade Schools.
    Institutions.No. examined.DEFECTS.
    Teeth.Vision.Nose and throat.Hearing.Ear discharge.Heart.Lungs.Anaemia.Back.Nutrition.Various.
    Defective.Eye strain.Round.Curvature.
  • Page 108
    The following table shows the development of the provision for residential treatment under the Council's scheme (excluding insured persons and ex-Service men):—
    Year.New cases admitted during year.Beds occupied at end of year.
  • Page 109
    On the basis of restoration of the normal provision in poor-law infirmaries, the number of beds available for London cases is approximately as follows:—
    Authorities providing beds.Beds provided.Numbers (included in column (2)) of beds provided for
    the Council.the Insurance Committee.
  • Page 112
    Details of the Council s work are given in the following table.
    Year.Infants removed from foster mothers.Exemptions.Deaths.Infringements discovered.Cautions.Prosecutions.Convictions.
  • Page 114
    The following are brief statistics of the Council's work during the year:—
  • Page 115
    Particulars with regard to common lodging-houses licensed by the Council are as follows:—
    Year.Houses licensed.Lodgers authorised.Prosecutions.Convictions.Penalties and costs.Cases of infectious disease
  • Page 115
    Particulars of seamen's lodging-houses licensed by the Council are as follows:—
    Year.Houses licensed.Lodgers authorised.Prosecutions.Convictions.Penalties and costs.Cases of infectious diseases
  • Page 116
    The following table gives particulars of licensed slaughterhouses, knackers' yards and registered offensive businesses for 1918-20.
    Year.Slaughterhouses.Knackers' yards.Offensive businesses.
  • Page 117
    The following table shows tor the year 1920 the incidence ot the principal animal diseases so far as London is concerned:—
    Disease.Number of outbreaks.Number of animals attacked by disease.
  • Page 118
    The cases of glanders dealt with, and the compensation paid, during 1920 are shown in the following table:—
    Horses slaughtered.*Comensation paid.
  • Page 120
    The following statement shows the quantities of sewage, etc., dealt with during 1920:—
    Sewage treated—Million gallons.
  • Page 132
    The results of the year's working compared with those of the previous year are as follows:—
    Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890-£s.d.£s.d.
  • Page 133
    Working-class dwellings.—lhe results for 1920-21 are as follows:—
    In occupation—-£s.d.
  • Page -
    The amounts payable by the several local authorities for the year 1917 on the basis above referred to are indicated in the following table:—
    Authority.Treatment at hospitals.Pathological examination of materials.
    Population to be served.Contribution.Population to be served.Contribution.
  • Page -
    The hospitals included in the scheme for the year 1917 were the following:—
  • Page -
    Still births.
    (a) Year.(b) Total number notified in London (including City).(c) Total number notified by midwives.(d) Percentage in midwives practice.Percentage of stillbirths or ordinary births.
  • Page -
  • Page -
  • Page -
    London.Middlesex.Essex.Surrey.Kent.Herts.Bucks.East Ham.West Ham.Croydon.Total.
  • Page -
    Months, 1920.Appeals to girls.Separations.
    8 London bureaux, (including Waterloo).Waterloo (only).8 London bureaux (including Waterloo).Waterloo (only).
  • Page -
    The table also indicates the ages of the subjects and their class so far as the Mental Deficiency Act is concerned.
    Source of notification.Class and age.Prostitutes.Others.
    Total.Number with recent venereal disease.Total.Number with recent venereal disease.Total.