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Holborn 1926

Report for the year 1926 of the Medical Officer of Health

Hutt, C. W.

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105 tables in this report

  • Page 8
  • Page 8
    Vital Statistics, 1926. England and Wales, London and Holborn.
    Annual Kates per 1,000 living.Deaths under 1 year to 1,000 Births.
  • Page 10
    The following table gives the corrected number of births and the corrected birth-rates for the nineteen years 1908-1926:—
    Year.Total Births.Legitimate Births.Illegitimate Births.
    No.Rate per 1,000 of Population.No.Rate per 1,000 of population.Proportion per 1,000 total Registered BirthsNo.Rate per 1,000 of population.Proportion per 1,000 total Registered Births.
  • Page 10
    Of these deaths the following occurred in Public Institutions, etc., within the area of the Borough:—
    St. Giles and Bloomsbury.Holborn.St. Giles and Bloomsbury.Holborn.
  • Page 11
    Corrected Deaths and Death- Rates, 1926, compared with 1925.
    Year.Total Deaths at all ages registered in District.Deaths in Public Institutions in District.Deaths of nonresidents of Borough registered in District.Deaths of residents registered beyond the District.Nett Deaths at all ages.Death Rate for BoroughDeath Rate. Registration London.
  • Page 11
    Seasonal Mortality. The mortality in the four quarters of the year as given in the Quarterly Reports of the Registrar-General is shown below : —
    Deaths.Death-rate per 1,000.London Rate.
  • Page 12
    These corrections increase the nett deaths in Holborn to 522 giving a corrected death-rate of 121 per 1,000, the corresponding rate in London being 11.6 per 1,000.
    Year.Deaths under 1 year of age.Deaths under 1 year per 1000 corrected legitimate Births.Deaths under 1 year per 1000 corrected illegitimate Births.Deaths under 1 year per 1000 corrected Births.London.
    Deaths under 1 year per 1000 Births.
  • Page 12
    Death-rate per 1,000 corrected births in 1926 and in ten preceding years during which details respecting births have been supplied.
    1916191719181919192019211922192319241925Av'ge, 1916-251926
  • Page 12
    The corrections considerably modify the Holborn rates as will be seen from the following figures: —
    Year 1926.Infantile Death-rate in Holborn per 1,000 Births
    Registrar-General's Quarterly ReportCorrected
  • Page 16
    [Form No. 5] Quantitative Analysis of 10 Tons of Seasonal House Refuse.
  • Page 17
    [Form No. 5] Quantitative Analysis of Seasonal Trade Refuse. These samples of trade refuse were subjected to analyses similar to those applied to house refuse with the result shown in the following table :—
    Winter Refuse, 13th January, 1926.Spring, 14th April, 1926.Summer Refuse, 14th July, 1926.Average.
  • Page 18
    Sanitary Inspectors' and Health Visitors' Work, Year 1926.
    Mr. BennettMr. ClarkMr. LarardMiss Charles-worthMiss ShinnieMiss Stock wellTotal
  • Page 19
    Continued from previous page...
    Mr. BennettMr. ClarkMr. LarardMiss Charles, worthMiss ShinnieMiss StockwellTotal
  • Page 20
    Public Health (London) Act, 1891—
  • Page 20
    The following table shows the work done to abate nuisances for which intimation notices were serves:-
    Water Supply—Houses.Factories, Workshops and Workplaces
  • Page 21
    Continued from previous page...
    HousesFactories, Workshops and Workplaces.
  • Page 21
    The following table shows the nuisances for which the 76 Statutory Notices were issued under the Public Health (London) Act. 1891.
    Houses.Factories, Workshops and Workplaces.
  • Page 24
    No fewer than 167 different industries are carried on in these workshops, among the principal being the following :—
    No. of Workshops Employing
    Men only.Women only.Both Sexes.Total.
  • Page 29
    The following table refers to the samples examined as mentioned above :—
    Date sample taken.Nature of Shop where purchased.No. of Organisms per cc. grown at 37° C for 24 hours.Minimal volume containing Bacillus Coli.
  • Page 30
    The number of organisms found on bacterial counts, as will be seen from the following table, ranged from 9,760 to 25,000,000 per c.c.
    Date of Examination.Number of organisms per c.c. grown at 37° C for 24 hours.
  • Page 32
    The Milk (Special Designations) Order, 1923. During the year 1926 licences available up to the 31st December, 1926, for the sale of designated milk in the Borough were issued as follows: —
  • Page 33
    The following table gives the percentages of the milk fat and milk solids found: —
    Milk fat per cent.Milk solids (including fat) per cent.
  • Page 35
    Ice cream is manufactured in the Italian colony as follows:—
  • Page 35
    In addition ice cream was also manufactured on the following premises :—
    Mr. Bennett's District.Mr. Clark's District.Mr. Larard's District.
  • Page 35
    The result of the bacteriological examination is shown in the following table: —
    Sample and date purchased.Where purchased.Organisms per cc. growing on Agar at 37° C for 24 hours.Streptococci present in 1 cc.Minimum volume showing eoliform organisms.1Minimum volume showing B enteritidis sporogenes.
  • Page 38
    The following table gives details of the inspections: — Sweet Shops Inspected.
    Mr. BennettMr. ClarkMr. LarardTotal
  • Page 39
    The following summary shows the number of butchers' shops and meat stalls in the Borough, and the number of other shops where meat is sold: —
  • Page 40
    The number of such places on the register at the end of the year was as follows: —
  • Page 41
    Unsound Food. The following unsound food was condemned during the year 1926:—
    Commodity.Quantity.Condition.Result of Action taken.
  • Page 42
    The following table gives particulars of the 35 samples above referred to: —
    Variety.Amount of Arsenic (if any).
  • Page 46
    Milk. The following tablo shows the fat content of the 179 samples of milk :—
    Percentage of Fat,Number of Samples.
  • Page 47
    The following table shows the average composition of milk samples purchased during each month of 1920.
    Number of Samples examined.Total Solids. Per cent. average.Solids Non-fat. Per cent. average.Fat. Per cent. average.
  • Page 48
    Articles Analysed. Formal Samples.
    article.PurchasedGenuine.Adulterated.Proceedings taken.Convictions.Fines and Costs.
  • Page 49
    Continued from previous page...
    ARTICLE.Purchased.Genuine.Adulterated.Proceedings taken.Convictions.Fines and Costs.
  • Page 49
    Informal Samples.
    article.Purchased.Genuine.Adulterated.Proceedings taken.Fines and Convictions.
  • Page 50
    All those who purchased and ate the meat (six in number as in the following table) were taken ill; the meat was eaten at about 10.45 a.m. They were all taken to hospital.
    Age in yearsQuantity of meat eatenTime taken illInitial symptomsDischarged from HospitalReturned to work
  • Page 51
    ENGLAND AND WALES. Common Infectious Diseases. Deaths at all Ages.
    1916.1917.1918.1919.1920.1921.1922.1923.1924.1925.Y early average 1916-1925.
  • Page 52
    The 189 notifications so received were as follows: —
  • Page 53
    The following table kindly supplied by the Vaccination Officer of the Holborn Union on 2nd March, 1927, gives information respecting vaccination in the Borough of Holborn: —
    Total Number of BirthsVaccinatedDied before VaccinationCons. ObjectorsInsusceptiblePostponed by Medical CertificateRemoved. No information as to VaccinationTemporaril.v unaccounted for
  • Page 53
    Of the 60 cases of diphtheria:—
  • Page 56
    TABLE I. HOLBORN MUNICIPAL INFANT WELFARE CENTRE, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926. Ages of Persons Schick Tested with Result of Test.
    Ages.6 to 12 months1 to 2 years2 to 3 years3 to 4 years4 to 5 years5 to 6 years6 to 7 years7 to 8 years8 to 9 years9 to 10 years10 to 11 years11 to 12 years12 to 13 years13 to 14 years14 to 15 years15 and above years
  • Page 56
    TABLE II. Ages of Persons Immunised.
    Age.6 to 12 months1 to 2 years2 to 3 years3 to 4 years4 to 5 years5 to 6 years6 to 7 years7 to 8 years8 to 9 years9 to 10 years10 to 11 years11 to 12 years12 to 13 years13 to 14 years14 to 15 years15 and above years
  • Page 57
    TABLE III. HOLBORN MUNICIPAL INFANT WELFARE CENTRE. Schick Test and Diphtheria Immunisation. Five years, 1922-23-24-25-26.
    Total Tested.Result of Test.Immunisation of Positivrs.
    Negative.Positive.Not read.Found NEGATIVE to Re Schick Test afterFound NEGATIVE to Re Schick Test afterFound POSITIVE to Re Schick Test after 3 ccm T.A.T.Total Re Schick TestedGiven 3 ccm T.A.T. Not Retested.Failed to complete 3 inoculatns.Inoculatns. not begun.Inoculatns. still in progress.Given 1 ccm not yet Re-tested
    1 ccm T.A.T.2 ccm T.A.T.3 ccm T.A.T.4 ccm T.A.T.5 ccm T.A.T.6 ccm T.A.T.8 ccmGiven further inoculation but not yet Retested.No further inoculation given.
  • Page 58
    No. of children in family.No of families.Of which the members are—
    All Schick positive.All Schick negative.One or more elders negative, younger positive.One or more elders positive, younger negative.
  • Page 60
    TABLE V.
    Re-Schick tested after an interval of years or fraction of years.Number retested after this interval.No. found positive.Age in years and sex of positives when first tested.Negative to 2nd re Schick test and total of T.A.T. given in all.
  • Page 62
    TABLE VI. Batches of Toxin Antitoxin and Toxoid Antitoxin Compared
    Designation of batch of toxin antitoxin mixture or toxoid antitoxin mixture.No. of persons inoculated and retested.Xo. of these persons found positive on retesting.
  • Page 65
    The following table gives information up to the end of 1926 respecting the 11 real cases of encephalitis lethargica notified in the Borough since the Public Health (Encephalitis Lethargica) Regulations came into force on the 1st January, 1919:—
    Date of Notification.Pat ient.Age when notified.Subsequent History.
  • Page 67
    In the majority of cases the disease was not ascribed to any special cause, but the following was given in 14 instances:—
  • Page 67
    Bacteriological Work. The following table gives details of the examinations made during the year: —
    DiphtheriaPulmonary Tuberculosis
  • Page 69
    Tuberculosis. Summary of Notifications and Deaths. The following table gives the number of new cases of tuberculosis and deaths from the disease in the Borough during 1926 in the form required by the Ministry of Health:—
    Age periods.New Cases.Deaths.
  • Page 69
    The initiation of the Tuberculosis Care Committee as a local institution and the administrative change whereby all correspondence concerning tuberculous patients is sent to the Borough Medical Officer of Health have proved beneficial; the knowledge of the local Public Health Staff of the patients is increased in a natural and easy way and the interest in the work encouraged.
  • Page 70
    Supervision of home conditions; visits paid by—
  • Page 70
    Public Health (Tuberculosis) Regulations, 1912. Summary of Notifications during the period from the 3rd January, 1926, to the 1st January, 1927, in the Metropolitan Borough of Holborn.
    Age-periods.Notifications on Form A.Notifications on Form B.Number of Notifications on Form C.
  • Page 70
    Supplemental Return. New cases of Tuberculosis coming to the knowledge of the Medical Officer of Health during the period from the 3rd January, 1926, to the 1st January, 1927, otherwise than by notification on Form A or Form B under the Public Health (Tuberculosis) Regulations, 1912.
    Age-periods.0 to l1 to55 to 1010 to 1515 to 2020 to 2525 to 3535 to 4545 to 5555 to 6565 and upwards.Total Cases.
  • Page 71
    Correction of Tuberculosis Register during the year 1926.
  • Page 71
    Removed from the Register during the same period for following reasons:—
  • Page 71
    The following is a summary of the infonnation in the 82 cases above referred to:—
  • Page 72
    Shared bed with—
  • Page 72
    Shared bed with—
  • Page 72
    Classification of Homes. The classification of homes as suggested by the London County Council has been reported on as far as practicable with the following results:—
  • Page 72
    The following summary gives the position at the end of 1926 of the 92 new cases respecting which information was received during the year:—
  • Page 73
    The following indicates the reasons for non-attendance in the remaining cases:—
  • Page 73
    The 91 admissions were to the following institutions:—
  • Page 74
    Showing the number of Patients who died in their own homes and the number who died away from home in Hospitals or other Institutions.
    0-1-5-10-15-20-25-35-45-55-65-All Ages.
  • Page 75
    Return showing the work of the Dispensary during the year 1926.
  • Page 76
    Continued from previous page...
  • Page 81
    Summary of Work carried out at Dental Clinic, 10, John Street, Holborn, on Tuesday Evenings, during 1926.
  • Page 83
    In 103 cases visits were not made for the following reasons: —
  • Page 83
    Home Visiting. The visits paid to the homes by the Health Visitors during the year were as follows:—
    First Visits.Revisits.Total.
  • Page 84
    The following is an analysis of the attendance at this Municipal Centre:
    Medical Consultation (alternate weeks) 2—5.30 p.m.Ante-natal and Post-natal cases only (alter-nate weeks) 2—5.30 p.m.Children and Mothers seen at Ante-natal ConsultationMedical Consultation 2—5.30 p.m.Class 3—5.30 p.m.Dentist, 2—4 p.m.Medical Consultation 2—5.30 p.m.
  • Page 85
    The attendances at this Branch Centre during the three months ended 31st December, 1926, were as follows : —
    Monday Class 2—5.30 p.m.Thursday Medical Consultation 2—5.30 p.m.
  • Page 86
    The following is a summary of the numbers of expectant mothers attending the ante-natal clinic, 10, John Street, found to have defects either due to or especially of concern in view of their pregnancy, during the year 1926: —
  • Page 87
    Continued from previous page...
  • Page 87
    Maternal and Infant Consultations. The following summary refers to maternal and infant consultations at10, John Street and the Short's Gardens Centres during the year1926 :—
    Reasons for Attendance.John Street.Short's Gardens.
  • Page 88
  • Page 88
    Mothers and children attending the Municipal Centres were referred to other departments for assistance during the year 1926 as follows:—
    Referred to.Mothers.Children.
  • Page 89
    The following summary gives particulars of mothers referred for breast massage in 1926: —
  • Page 89
    Diarrhœa. During the year the cases of diarrhœa occurring in children attending the Council's Centres were as follows: —
    10, John Street.Short's Gardens.
  • Page 89
    Illegitimate Births. The following table gives a summary of the information obtained as a result of enquiries respecting the circumstances of illegitimate babies in the year 1926 :
  • Page 90
    The following table shows new cases assisted in 1926:
    Free.Part Cost.Free,Part Cost.
  • Page 92
    The cause and age of death are given in the following Table: —
    Cause of DeathUnder 1 Week1-2 Weeks2-3 Weeks3-4 WeeksTotal under 4 Weeks4 Weeks and under 3 -Months3-6 Months6-9 Months9-12MonthsTotal under 1 Year
    MFMFMFMFMFBoth sexesMFMFMFMFMFBoth sexes
  • Page 92
    The cause and age of death are given in the following Table: —
    Net births registered during the calendar year.Net deaths registered during the calendar year.
    MalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexes
  • Page 93
    Deaths of Children 1 to 5 Years, 1926. Twenty-three children between the ages 1 to 5 years died from the following causes:—
    Cause of Death.Ages.Tota1 1—5
    M.F.M.FM.F.M.F..M.F.Both Sexes.
  • Page 95
    Six Cases Notified in Accordance with the Public Health (Ophthalmia Neonatorum) Regulations, 1914.
    Case Number.Age when Notified.Age at Onset.By whom Notified.Type of Disease on Health Visitor's first visit.Where Treated.Medical Attendance and Nursing.Result.Birth Notified byREMARKS.
  • Page 96
    Six Cases not Notified in accordance with the Public Health (Ophthalmia Neonatorum) Regulations, 1914.
    Case Number.Age when Information received.Age at Onset.Information.Type of Disease on Health Visitor's first visit.Where treated.Medical Attendance and Nursing.Result.Birth notified by.Remarks.
  • Page 99
    The number of contacts was 43, of whom 25 were susceptible, 18 having already suffered from an attack: 6 had no contacts.
  • Page 100
    The services of the nurses were used as follows in 1926: —
  • Page 105
    Medical Examination of School Children—Routine Inspections—Elementary Schools in Holborn, 1926.
    Age, Group.Number examined.Clothing and Boots.Nutrition.Cleanliness of Head.Cleanliness of Body.Condition of Teeth.Vision.
    Good.Fair.Poor.Good.Average.Below normal.Clean.Nits.Pediculi.Clean.Dirty.Pediculi.All sound.Less than four decayed.Four or more d ecayed.6/6 in both eyes.6 9 in either eye.6/12 or worse in either eye.
  • Page 106
    Defects Found At Medical, Inspection, Holborn Elementary Schools, 1926.
    EntrantsAge 8Age 12Age 14EntrantsAge 8Age 12Age 14
  • Page 107
    Deaths of Children 5-15 years, 1926.
    567891011121314Both Sexes.
  • Page 114
    HOUSING CONDITIONS. Statistics. Year Ended 31 st December, 1926. 1.—GENERAL.
  • Page 115
    III.—ACTION UNDER STATUTORY POWERS. A. Proceedings under Section 28 of the Housing, Town Planning, etc., Act, 1919:—
  • Page 116
    APPENDIX. TABLE I. Vital Statistics of Whole District during 1926 and Ten Previous Years.
    YearPopulation estimated to Middle of each Year.Births.Total Deaths Registered in the DistrictTransferable DeathsNet Deaths belonging to the District.
    Under 1 Year of AgeAt all Ages
    Uncorrected NumberNetNumberRateof Nonresidents registered in the Districtof Residents not registered in the DistrictNumberRate per 1,000 BirthsNumberRata
  • Page 117
    TABLE II. Causes of, and Ages at, Death, 1926.
    Causesof Death.NET DEATHS AT THE SUBJOINED AGES OF "RESIDENTS," whether occurring within or without the District.Total Deaths whether of " Resi. dents " or "Non-Residents" in Institutions in the District.
    All Ages.Under 1 year.1 and under 2 years.2 and under 5 years.5 and under 15 years.15 and under 25 years.25 and under 45 years.45 and under 65 years.65 and under 75 years.75 and upwards.
  • Page 118
    TABLE III. Cases of Infectious Disease notified during the year 1926.
    Notifiable Disease.Number of Cases Notified.Total Cases Notified in each Locality (e.g. Parish or Ward) of the District.Total Cases Removed to Hospitals,
    At Agea—Tears,
    St. Giles and Bloomsbury.Holborn.
    At till Ages.Under 11 to 55 to 1515 to 2525 to 4545 to 6565 and wards.
  • Page 119
    TABLE IV. Infectious Diseases in Holborn for the last Eleven Years.
    Decennial Average, 1914-1925Year 1926Decennial Average, 1918-1925Year 1926
    NumberRate per 1,000London KateNumberRate per 1,000London RateNumberRate per 1,000London RateNumberRate per 1,000London Rate
  • Page 120
    PREMISES.Number in Borough at end of 1926.Number of Inspections.Number of Prosecutions.
  • Page 120
    Housing op the Working Classes— Number of houses inspected:—
  • Page 121
    TABLE VI. Factories, Workshops, Laundries, Workplaces and Homework. 1.—INSPECTION. Including Inspections made by Sanitary Inspectors.
    PREMISES.Number of
    Inspections.Written Notices.Prosecutions.
  • Page 121
    Particulars.Number of Defects.Number of Prosecutions.
    Found.Remedied.Referred to h.m. Inspector.
  • Page 122
    TABLE VI — continued. 3.—HOME WORK.
    NATURE OF WORKOutworkers' Lists, Section 107.Outwork in Unwhole-some Premises, Section 108.Outwork in Infected Premises, Sections 109, 110.
    Lists received from Employers.Notices served on occupiers as to keeping or sending lists.Prosecutions.
    Sending twice in the year.Sending once in the year.Failing to keep or permit inspection of lists.Failing to send listsInstances.Notices servedProsecutionsInstances.Orders made (S. 110).Prosecutions (Sections 109, 110)
  • Page 123
    Workshops on the Register (S. 131) at the end of the year.Number.
  • Page 123
  • Page 124
  • Page 124